Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients, which are naturally formed in plant foods, or can be added to many foods manufactured in the form of starch, or added sugar, and are present in many foods and beverages, and it is worth noting that the body can store carbohydrates only in limited quantities, for only one or two days, so it uses them as an energy source, as some cell types such as brain cells, consume glucose in particular from food.
Types of carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are generally classified into two types: simple carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, depending on the chemical composition of food, the speed with which sugar is digested and absorbed, simple sugars include monosaccharides, and binary sugars( Disaccharides), and complex sugars include polysaccharides, and these three types are illustrated:
Monosaccharides: This group is the smallest unit of sugar, and includes glucose, which is the main source of energy in the cell, fructose found in vegetables and fruits, and galactose, which is found in milk and dairy products.
Disaccharides: Disaccharides consist of the bonding of two monosaccharides, and they include maltose and lactose in milk, which is produced by the association of a glucose molecule with a molecule of galactose, and sucrose in table sugar that results from the association of a glucose molecule with a fructose molecule, which is often produced From the interaction of sunlight absorbed by chlorophyll with other compounds in plants, in the process of photosynthesis.
Polysaccharides: Polysaccharides are defined as a chain consisting of two or more monosaccharides, which can consist of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides, and this chain is either branched; It looks like a tree with branches and branches, or not branching in the form of a straight line, and there are several types of multiple sugars, including:
Glycogen: stored in the liver and muscles of humans and animals.
Starches: They are a long chain of glucose polymers, consisting of amylose and amylopectin, which are insoluble in water, and are digested by amylase enzymes in humans and animals, and their sources are: potatoes, rice, and wheat.
Cellulose: It is one of the main components of the structure of plants, as most wood, paper, and cotton are made of cellulose.
Studies on the benefits of carbohydrates of all kinds
A study published in The Lancet in 2019 indicated that consuming approximately 25 to 29 grams of dietary fiber per day can reduce the risk of some chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and colon cancer. and rectum.
A study published in Nutrition in 2008 indicated that consuming carbohydrate-rich fluids before surgery reduces energy loss in the body after surgery, while maintaining gastric pH and blood glucose levels, despite fasting throughout the night.
A study published by the International Journal of Sports Medicine indicated that taking one gram of carbohydrate supplements per gram of body weight after exercise helps to boost glycogen stores in the body for 6 hours after exercise, and the duration can be increased by adding protein to the carbohydrate supplement. .
A 2012 study published in the World Journal of Gastroenterology indicated that dietary fiber intake may help reduce constipation by increasing the frequency of defecation in patients with constipation.
A study published in Nutrition Reviews in 2001 showed that eating soluble and insoluble dietary fiber helps reduce the risk of obesity, by increasing the feeling of satiety after meals, and not feeling hungry for a longer period, in addition to that eating an additional 14 grams of fiber for a period of time. More than 2 days is associated with a 10% reduction in energy intake and a loss of approximately 1.9 kg of body weight in the equivalent of 4 months.
Carbohydrates and bodybuilding
Eating carbohydrates helps provide bodybuilders with the energy needed to pass competition preparations and improve their athletic performance, but their need for carbohydrates varies from one player to another, and it is worth noting that not eating enough carbohydrates will weaken resistance exercises.
So recent studies indicated, relying on The training phase showed that eating 4 to 7 grams of carbohydrates per kilogram of body weight is beneficial to the body, and a study published in Sports Medicine indicated that eating a meal rich in carbohydrates 3 to 4 hours before exercising increases carbohydrate stores, and helps to lose weight. Enhance athletic performance.
How to calculate carbohydrates for a bodybuilder
The amount of calories must be calculated first before calculating the amount of carbohydrates needed, as this makes it easy to determine the proportion of macronutrients, which is the ratio between protein, carbohydrates, and fats, despite the difference in calorie needs between the bulking stage and sculpting. Muscles (cutting) for bodybuilders, but the ratios between the macronutrients do not change, and they are as follows:
- 55% to 60% of calories come from carbohydrates.
- 30% to 35% of calories come from protein.
- 15% to 20% of calories are from fat.
Carbohydrates and diabetes
The body maintains sugar levels within the normal range by secreting the hormone insulin from the pancreas, which stimulates the conversion of glucose units into energy and the storage of additional quantities in the cells of the body.
Having type 2 diabetes and other health diseases, and it should be noted that excessive sugar intake is not the only factor in infection, but rather its combination with other factors.