How to prevent syphilis – symptoms and treatment

syphilis

Syphilis

Can a man have syphilis and not know it ?


Syphilis can be defined as a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacteria known as Treponema pallidum.

It should be noted that this disease is common. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recorded nearly 88,000 cases of syphilis in the United States of America.

However, it showed that the number of women infected with this disease is declining, while the number of cases of infection among men is increasing, especially among homosexuals.

Symptoms of syphilis 

what are the signs of syphilis in a man? 
It is possible for a person to contract syphilis without showing any symptoms of syphilis for many years, and on the other hand, a group of symptoms of syphilis can appear that differ according to the stage of the disease, as syphilis develops in several different stages.

Each accompanied by symptoms that differ from the other stage, and it is worth noting that In some cases, it is possible for the patient to enter the stage without showing symptoms of syphilis , or the symptoms of the different stages may overlap with each other.

The following is a description of these stages and the symptoms of each of them in general:

primary syphilis

(Primary Syphilis), The first symptoms of syphilis that appear on people with syphilis, are sores, called hard sores (chancre), and in fact these sores appear in the area through which the bacteria that cause syphilis entered the body, and the ulcer usually appears after three Weeks from the moment of exposure to the bacteria.

And the patient may not feel the presence of the ulcer in some cases due to its presence inside the vagina or anus, and it is worth noting that these sores are not painful, and therefore the infected usually do not notice their presence, and these sores may need from three to six weeks to heal Alone, and it should be noted that the patient may have one or more ulcers.

Second stage of syphilis:

This stage begins a few weeks after the healing of the sores that appeared in the initial stage, and this stage is often represented by the appearance of a rash covering the whole body, although it initially appears only in the trunk area, and this rash may accompany

The appearance of warts in the genital areas as well as in the mouth, and other symptoms of syphilis and signs that may appear on those with this stage are muscle pain, fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes, and it should be noted that these symptoms of syphilis may appear and disappear several times repeatedly for a period of up to a year. complete, or may disappear completely after a few weeks.

Latent syphilis:

This stage is known by this name because the disease is latent, and the infected do not show any symptoms or signs, and it should be noted that people who reach this stage often did not receive appropriate treatment in the previous stages. 

The third stage of syphilis:

this stage reaches approximately 15-30% of people who did not receive treatment during the previous stages, and it should be noted that this stage may cause severe damage, including damage to the nerves, brain, and heart Eyes, blood vessels, liver, joints, and bones, and often the patient does not reach this stage until years after infection and leaving it untreated.

Congenital syphilis:

This syphilis is known as congenital because the fetus is born with syphilis, and that is because its mother has the disease, and in fact the disease is transmitted from the mother to her fetus either through the placenta during pregnancy, or during the birth process.

And regardless about the mode of transmission; Usually, the affected infant does not show any symptoms or signs except for redness of the soles of the hands and feet, but other symptoms of syphilis may appear later, including hearing loss, dental problems, and so on.

syphilis treatment

The injured should undergo treatment, because the disease does not go away on its own, and leaving the injured without treatment causes it to progress to more dangerous stages and the occurrence of some serious health complications.

And it is also worth noting not to have sex in its various forms while receiving treatment, and for a period of two weeks after the end of treatment In fact, the best treatment for syphilis is to dispense appropriate antibiotics, and these antibiotics are given by prescription.

Which requires the patient to undergo an examination to detect syphilis before undergoing treatment. Penicillin, or by taking antibiotic pills given for a period ranging between ten and fourteen days, but in cases where a person has had syphilis for more than two years, then the best option is to administer an injection of penicillins once a week For three weeks.

And in the absence of penicillin or inability to give it, it can be resorted to antibiotics given orally for a period of up to twenty-eight days.

In fact, these antibiotics, like other medicines, are capable of causing many side effects, perhaps the most important of which is the allergic reaction that appears on the patient after receiving the injection.

And therefore the specialist monitors the condition of the patient after being injected with penicillins to provide the appropriate treatment in the event of signs of allergy, and on the other hand, It can be said that two out of every five infected suffer from flu-like side effects and symptoms.

Which are often fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, and Paracetamol can be given to control these symptoms, and they often disappear within twenty-four Hour.
When undergoing syphilis treatment, the patient must not have sex as long as the sores resulting from it are present and have not completely healed.

And the husband must undergo treatment as well, and they must stop having sex until the completion of treatment and making sure of recovery.

Penicillin is the first treatment for syphilis. It treats patients in the primary and secondary stages by taking it by intramuscular injection.

In the case of suffering from neurosyphilis, penicillin is often given intravenously, although the damage resulting from this form of the disease cannot be repaired, then the treatment aims to relieve symptoms and accompanying pain only.

As for people who are allergic to penicillin, other antibiotics may be used, in the form of pills taken orally, such as Doxycycline, Erythromycin, and Ceftriaxone.

Syphilis sores

Skin ulcers caused by syphilis begin to appear three weeks after exposure to Treponema pallidum bacteria. The primary sores that appear at this stage are known as chancre. These ulcers can be described as follows:

Syphilis sores initially appear as a single red papule that begins to appear on the surface of the skin.

Syphilis sores at this stage do not cause the patient to feel any pain.

This ulcer is characterized by having a smooth surface that does not exceed a few millimeters or a few centimeters in diameter, and a liquid containing the bacteria that causes disease comes out of it.

Sores spread to cover different areas of the body, but most often they begin to appear on the male penis, or on the female genitals, and in the cervical or anal area.

Most syphilis sores that spread to the genitals appear smaller than those that appear on other parts of the body.

The skin ulcers disappear and heal on their own after two to six weeks from the moment they appear, but not undergoing drug treatment leads the patient to the second stage of syphilis.

Treatment in case of pregnancy

With regard to pregnant women suffering from this disease; The treatment depends on the duration of infection with the disease and the duration of pregnancy.

If the duration of the disease is less than two years, then the treatment during the first or second trimester of pregnancy is by injecting a single penicillin needle into the muscle, but if the treatment is during the third trimester of pregnancy.

It is by By injecting two needles of penicillin, separated by a week, but if the infection with syphilis has exceeded two years, the treatment is by injecting three penicillin needles so that each needle is separated by a week, and in some cases oral antibiotics are prescribed for a short period of time. Time in case of inability to give penicillin.

Methods of transmission of syphilis

Sexual contact is the most prominent way in which syphilis is transmitted, and since the bacteria that cause it are considered weak to external conditions, the transmission of syphilis through the use of personal items such as towels, or through toilets is a rare occurrence, and the transmission of syphilis occurs upon contact with the resulting ulcers.

For the mucous membranes lining the vagina, urethra, oral cavity, and rectum when having sex, the chance of transmission of the disease varies according to the stage it has reached, so this chance is great in the initial stage of it, but in the second stage it depends on the presence of warts or not.

The chance of transmission is also great because of the large number of bacteria in these warts, and health workers may contract syphilis when they come into contact with scratches, and wounds on their hands with sores caused by syphilis.

Syphilis may be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her fetus, during pregnancy or at birth, and if not properly treated, it may cause the fetus to abort, or it may be born with infection, and then it may show several symptoms, such as high temperature, delayed growth, and suffering. convulsions, and may lead to his death.

Ways to prevent syphilis

Avoid sexual relations outside of marriage.

Refrain from having sexual intercourse until the infection is completely gone.

Conducting laboratory tests periodically, especially in the case of forbidden sexual relations.

Do not share needles.

Use the available condoms during sexual intercourse.

Disinfection of the patient’s clothing.

Pay attention to the hygiene of the genital areas.

Eat foods that prevent sexual diseases such as garlic.

The effects of syphilis on the pregnant woman

Fetal death during pregnancy or after birth.

Abortion after the third month of pregnancy.

The birth of a normal child, but symptoms of the disease appear after a period of his birth.

This disease is transmitted from the mother to the fetus in two ways:Transmission through the blood circulation: from the mother to the placenta, and then to the fetus.

Transmission directly during childbirth; Where bacteria are transmitted from ulcers that infect the reproductive system of the pregnant woman, and then to the fetus.

An overview of syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), which occurs as a result of a bacterial infection caused by the bacteria known as Treponema pallidum, and the infection is often transmitted through mucous membranes or Skin sores that are found in the vagina, anus, rectum, mouth, and on the lips, by having sex in any form with an infected person.

And the infection can also be transmitted from the mother to her fetus during pregnancy or at birth, and it should be noted that infection The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicated that more than 88,000 cases of syphilis were recorded in 2016, and that approximately 60% of Cases of syphilis were in homosexual men.

This disease is considered anal sexually transmitted disease

The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the anus is witnessing a significant increase, due to the practice of anal intercourse, especially among homosexuals (Homosexuality), in addition to those with bisexuality (Bisexuality).

Types of anal STDs

Types of anal STIs include:

GonorrheaAmong the important notes about gonorrhea are the following:

Gonorrhea occurs as a result of infection of the genitals with a germ, which causes many unpleasant symptoms, such as itching, pain, wounds, and localized purulent secretions.

Men become infected by anal intercourse, while women may develop local infection.

The disease is diagnosed by culture, and treatment is usually with antibiotics, such as penicillin, and it is important to stay under medical supervision in order to prevent recurrence of infection.

syphilis

Syphilis primarily affects homosexuals, and results in a hard sore that appears several weeks to several months after infection.

The condition is usually diagnosed by a direct smear test or by a blood test that measures antibodies in the blood serum, and is treated with penicillin.

Lymphogranuloma venereum

Important notes regarding lymph granulomatosis are the following:

Lymphogranulomatosis is caused by infection with chlamydial proctitis, a type of bacteria that lives inside cells (Intracellular microorganism).

This disease causes pain, clear or bloody discharge, ulcers around the anus, and enlarged groin lymph nodes.

Diagnosis is determined according to a blood test or according to the results of culture from the affected tissues, and the treatment is through antibiotics.

Herpes simplex

Among the important observations about herpes simplex are the following:

Infection with the herpes simplex virus causes the area to become irritated, painful, and have blisters filled with clear fluid.

Diagnosis is based on the appearance of the vesicles. Treatment is with oral Acyclovir, in addition to topical treatment.

Anal warts

Among the important notes about anal warts are the following:

This disease occurs as a result of infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV), which causes the formation of multiple small wounds (lesions) around the anus and sometimes in the rectum.

The infection causes local irritation and bleeding, and is usually treated with cautery, excision with an electric scalpel, or using a laser.

Lesions can recur significantly, and can also turn into a malignant cell carcinoma (Squamous cell carcinoma).

AIDS

Among the important notes about AIDS are the following:

AIDS, or the so-called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is one of the diseases that occur due to a virus transmitted through sexual contact or blood.

This leads to a failure of the immune system, and thus systemic infection and infection of the anus.Inflammation of the anus arises due to cytomegalovirus, and ulcers appear directly caused by the virus.

An HIV test should be done for every person with a sexually transmitted disease in the anus area, and it must be taken into account that this can cause cancerous tumors to form.

Symptoms of anal STIs

Anal STIs may cause many symptoms and indications, including the following:

Sores or blisters on the genitals or rectal area.Feeling of pain or burning during urination.Discharge from the penis.Unusual or foul-smelling vaginal discharge.vaginal bleeding;Feeling of pain during intercourse.Swollen and swollen lymph nodes, especially in the groin.lower abdominal painfever.A rash appears on the trunk, hands, or feet.

Causes of anal STIs include:

Bacteria: Bacteria can cause gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia.

Parasites: Parasites can cause trichomoniasis.

Viruses: Viruses can cause human papillomavirus, genital herpes, and HIV.

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