Symptoms of weak immunity
Those with weak immunity, immunodeficiency, suffer from a group of symptoms and health problems, but their appearance does not necessarily mean that they have an immunodeficiency. Symptoms of weak immunity are as follows:
Increased chance and severity of infection
The most common symptom of weak immunity is an increased risk of infection; So that they are infected more frequently than others, and infection usually targets the respiratory system at first, so sinusitis, lung infection, bronchitis.
And other types of infections that affect the respiratory system are often repeated, in addition to Increasing the chance of contracting other types of infections such as: meningitis and recurrent skin infections, and infections that affect the mouth such as thrush.
Which is a fungal infection that affects the mouth, as well as common in people with weak immunity, eye and digestive system infections, and it is indicated that the infection is severe and its treatment is more difficult for some patients with weak immunity, as well as those with weak immunity are exposed to types of infections that those with natural immunity do not catch.
And most cases of weak immunity cause an increase in the duration of infection, especially bacterial; It may last for a long period of time, or it may result in other complications that affect the patient’s health, for example, a sore throat or a cold may develop into pneumonia, and despite what has been mentioned.
It is worth noting that the recurrence of a cold does not mean The inevitability of a person with weak immunity, for example, children, their recurring infection may be due to their presence in nurseries and schools, as such environments spread infection widely.
Symptoms and signs of weak immunity vary according to the nature of weak immunity, for example; When there is a deficiency of both immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies and certain types of IgG antibodies, the patient is more likely to develop an ear infection. lung, sinuses, throat, or gastrointestinal tract.
Other symptoms of weak immunity
what causes weak immunity? – what is signs of a weak immune system?
Immunocompromised may also suffer from many problems, such as: oral ulcers, chronic gum problems such as frequent gingivitis, frequent ear infections as well, in addition to bacterial infection caused by Staphylococcus bacteria, which causes Sores filled with pus, which may eventually cause pyoderma, in addition to a viral infection that affects the skin and causes large warts, and other symptoms and signs that indicate a weak immune system include:
- Fever and chills.
- Loss of appetite.
- Lose weight.
- Abdominal pain, which may be due to an enlarged liver or spleen.
- Bacterial infection or any other infection that leads to a critical and dangerous condition of the patient unexpectedly, as it usually does not cause this danger.
- Failure to respond to the infection treatments used, and complete recovery from the disease is delayed.
- Having Kaposi sarcoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
- Chronic diarrhea and failure to thrive, a condition that means delayed growth and organ development in infants and young children.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), are all terms that express a chronic disease condition resulting from infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
HIV can damage the immune system and reduce the body’s ability to fight infection and disease STI is sexually transmitted infection and the virus usually takes several years before the immune system is weakened to infection with AIDS; As AIDS is the last stage of HIV infection, and in the context of the discussion, it is worth noting that there is no effective treatment to eliminate HIV or AIDS, but the discovered drugs help slow the progression of the disease and reduce the number of deaths in the world.
Symptoms of immunodeficiency
HIV may not cause any symptoms or signs in the initial stages of the disease, and some may feel influenza-like symptoms, and it is worth noting that these symptoms appear after a few days to several weeks after a person is infected with the virus for the first time, They usually disappear within two to three weeks, and common initial symptoms include:
- Fever or high body temperature.
- sore throat.
- Muscle and joint pain.
- Enlarged lymph nodes.
- Skin rash.
It is worth noting that after the disappearance of the early symptoms, the patient may not show any signs or symptoms again for many years, and as a result of the development of the disease and caused by weakening the immune system and reaching the stage of AIDS (immunodeficiency disease), the patient appears a number of other symptoms, which include the following :
- Extreme tiredness and fatigue.
- Weight loss.
- Night sweats.
Causes of immunodeficiency
As mentioned earlier, immunodeficiency disease occurs as a result of infection with HIV, and in fact it can be infected through the arrival of blood, semen or vaginal fluids to the body; It comes from an infected person.
In fact, most people contract the virus as a result of unprotected sex with someone who has HIV. Other common ways of contracting HIV include:
Sharing needles with someone who has HIV.
Transmission of the virus from mother to child either during pregnancy and childbirth, or during breastfeeding.
It is worth noting that HIV does not live well outside the human body, so the virus cannot be transmitted through sharing drinking glasses with an infected person.
Reasons to see a doctor
Although the above-mentioned symptoms may appear naturally in some cases, it is very important to see a doctor in the event of a recurrence of infection, or if the infection is severe, or does not respond to treatment, and the benefit lies in seeing a doctor in the early diagnosis of infection and the start of treatment.
Weakened immunity, if any, which helps prevent future infections and their long-term complications, even if the person with weak immunity has not been diagnosed; Early diagnosis of any other health condition facilitates treatment of the condition and reduces the chance of any complications arising.
Information about weak immunity
Immunodeficiency is the state of the immune system’s inability to perform its functions as it should, and fighting infection and protecting the body from various microbes is the main function of the immune system.
And in the event of any disorder or weakness in this system, a person is more likely to contract various types of infections that they cause. These different microbes, and consequently, the chance of infection increases at a rate more than normal as we mentioned.
And it takes a longer period to recover from them, and in fact there are many reasons that lead to weak immunity, including: infection with some genetic diseases, some types of infections, taking certain types of medications, pregnancy, And getting old, and many other reasons.
It is indicated that there are two types of weak immunity, which we show in the following:
Primary immune weakness: It means the immunodeficiency that the person with it is born with, and it may be attributed to a genetic cause as it is transmitted from parents to children, that is, from one generation to the next, with the possibility of contracting this type of immunodeficiency without a genetic cause; It may appear suddenly in a person’s life.
Secondary Immunodeficiency: Where the weakened immunity is the result of another cause or another pathological condition, such as infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, or as a result of an accident, or a procedure that causes a wound in a particular organ that leads to weak immunity in the body, such as the spleen, for example.
Immunodeficiency during pregnancy
Radical changes occur in a woman’s body during pregnancy; This is to provide a suitable environment to incubate the fetus, but these changes may affect the health of the pregnant woman, and it has recently been found that the immune system may undergo some changes during pregnancy.
And it is not inhibited as was previously thought, as the immune system remains active but in a different way, and these continue Changes that occur to the immune system throughout pregnancy that aim to protect the mother and fetus. It is noteworthy that these changes occur in a highly coordinated manner.
The timing of their occurrence follows a very precise pattern, and these changes can be predicted in a normal pregnancy, and because of changes in the immune system; The pregnant woman becomes less or more susceptible to specific diseases at certain times of pregnancy.
As it is indicated that the pregnant woman is more susceptible to diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy, and less susceptible to that in the second trimester, and changes that occur to some immune cells may lead to the absence of Or the disappearance of symptoms associated with autoimmune diseases in some pregnant women, but these changes may also make them more likely to develop complications from influenza and other types of infections.
As mentioned earlier; It was believed that for the success of pregnancy and the implantation of the fetus in the womb; The immune system must be suppressed throughout the pregnancy to ensure the continuation of the pregnancy.
This theory was based on the presence of the mother’s immune cells at the place of implantation of the fetus.
It was believed that these immune cells attack the embryonic cells, while the embryonic cells in turn try to inhibit the work of the immune cells, and therefore it was believed that the implantation process might occur if the embryonic cells outperformed and succeeded in inhibiting the immune cells, as it was believed that this continues throughout pregnancy, and in If the fetal cells fail to suppress the mother’s immune cells continuously throughout the pregnancy; This leads to spontaneous abortion or premature birth.
It was recently found that the presence of the mother’s immune cells at the place of implantation of the fetus is necessary for the success of the implantation process, and this does not happen as a reaction from the body to the appearance of foreign bodies, which are the embryonic cells, and the interaction between the immune cells of the mother and the cells of the fetus has an important role throughout the pregnancy, and as mentioned previously The timing of changes to the immune system of a pregnant woman follows a precise pattern, as shown below:
The occurrence of a series of inflammatory reactions due to the penetration of the fetal cells to the uterine lining is necessary for the implantation process to occur, and these reactions are similar to those that occur when healing wounds, and if these inflammatory reactions are prevented from occurring, this prevents the implantation process from occurring, and it is indicated that the control of these inflammatory cells It lasts during the first twelve weeks of pregnancy.
during the subsequent fifteen weeks; Anti-inflammatory cells and molecules predominate; As the fetus is in a state of rapid growth and development, and some fetal cells show signs or what is known as antigens or antigens on the surfaces of the cells, which it is indicated that their source is from the father, and in normal conditions, the mother’s immune cells will recognize these Cells act as foreign bodies and attack them; However, the Regulatory T cell; These are specialized white blood cells that stimulate an anti-inflammatory environment; Which protects the cells of the fetus.
The reactivation of inflammatory cells and compounds due to the reactivation of the immune system is greatly increased near the time of delivery. Inflammatory reactions help trigger the labor response.
The effect of immunodeficiency on pregnant women
Immunodeficiency during pregnancy may cause any of the following:
- delayed or slow fetal growth; As the health of the fetus depends on the strength of the mother’s immune system, and therefore immunodeficiency may lead to late growth of the fetus, or its slow or incomplete development.
- Increasing tiredness and fatigue, which are mentioned as common symptoms during pregnancy; But in the case of immunodeficiency, the severity of fatigue and fatigue increases significantly.
- Having the flu more frequently than usual.
- high incidence of pregnancy nausea; It is also a common symptom during pregnancy; However, immunodeficiency increases the frequency of morning sickness.
- pregnant high blood pressure; In some cases, a change in the immune system may cause it to react to certain stimuli, causing an increase in blood pressure.
- Ease of infection, germs, and toxins, and the pregnant woman’s body becomes vulnerable to infections.
- An increased chance of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus attacks during pregnancy in the event of any of them, which are autoimmune diseases in which the immune system attacks itself by mistake, and these attacks may occur during pregnancy Due to the weakening of the immune system during this period.
Tips and advice to boost immunity during pregnancy
It is recommended to follow some healthy habits and instructions that have a role in strengthening the immune system during pregnancy.
Among these tips and instructions are the following:
Taking prenatal vitamins: It is recommended to take vitamins or nutritional supplements during pregnancy; Because it helps provide the pregnant body with the necessary nutrients that you may not get enough from the diet, and it helps the development and growth of the fetus as well, and maintains the health of the mother, and it is necessary to consult a doctor before starting to take any of these vitamins, and one of the most important nutritional supplements or The vitamins that the doctor prescribes on a regular basis for pregnant women are as follows:
- Folic acid.
- Vitamin D.
A healthy diet: A healthy diet plays an important role in strengthening the immune system. A healthy diet must contain carbohydrates, proteins, and healthy fats in balanced quantities. It is also recommended to eat more fruits and vegetables, and stay away from fast foods.
Drinking sufficient amounts of water: Decreased body hydration and lack of fluid supply may weaken the immune system, so it is recommended to drink sufficient amounts of water, as well as its role in helping to remove harmful toxins from the body, and prevent dehydration, and it should be noted that pregnant women need to Approximately 2.3 liters of fluid per day.
Take enough rest: It is important to take enough rest to maintain the health of the body, and it is recommended to set specific hours for sleep, and it is advised to take naps when needed, and it should be noted that nutritional supplements or vitamins that contain melatonin, which A sleep aid that lacks evidence of its safety during pregnancy; Therefore, it should be avoided during pregnancy.
Exercising: Exercising is beneficial to the health of the body, and its exercise helps to sleep well at night, and it is recommended to consult a doctor before starting any type of exercise during pregnancy.