Disorders and problems of puberty in males and females

Puberty Disorders

Puberty Disorders

Puberty is defined as the stage in which a series of important natural and health changes appear on the child as a result of changing levels of certain types of hormones in the body, which indicate his transition from childhood to adolescence.

And this includes a group of emotional, psychological and social changes, and changes in the sexual organs For the child, the occurrence of physical development and growth inside and outside the body, and changes in the brain, and it must be noted that in some cases these changes and processes do not occur properly and as they should actually be. This condition is called puberty disorder.


It is worth noting that these hormonal changes often occur during the middle school years, but this varies according to individuals. Puberty may begin in a child early or late. The signs of puberty begin to appear on females usually earlier than in males, and these psychological changes are related to And physical changes in the levels of certain hormones present in the body, as the stage of puberty and the reproductive system are controlled by a small area in the brain called the hypothalamus, from which several hormones are secreted.

Such as gonadotropin releasing hormone, GnRH, which stimulates the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland, and these two hormones are directed to the gonads – ovaries in the female and the testes of women Male – to stimulate the formation and secretion of sex hormones, namely: estrogen, progesterone, and Testosterone also supports gametogenesis.

And it is worth noting that the hormones estrogen and testosterone contribute to the development of secondary sexual characteristics in puberty, which distinguish males from females, such as the appearance of facial hair and the development of muscle mass in males Breast growth and hip rotation in females.

Accordingly, puberty disorders can be classified into two basic types. Late puberty is often a natural disorder, and then it is called structural delayed puberty, but it may also occur as a result of hypogonadism, which results in the problem of gonadotropin deficiency, or hypergonadism.

Early puberty may be secondary to stimulation of the hypothalamus, and in this case it is called central or gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty, or early puberty may be secondary to a change in the regulation of the production of sex hormones in glands, such as the adrenal gland or other tissues In this case, it is called peripheral precocious puberty, or non-gonadotropin-dependent.

Early puberty

Precocious puberty occurs when a set of changes begin to appear in a child’s body at a very early age, which indicate puberty.

Implications for precocious puberty

In the case of early puberty, a set of symptoms and signs appear on the child before the age of 9 years in males, and before 8 years in females, and the most prominent of these signs are: accelerated growth.

The emergence of body odor as the body odor of an adult, the appearance of hair in the pubic and armpit area, breast growth and descent The first female menstrual cycle, enlargement of the penis and testicles, growth of facial hair and an increase in the depth of the voice in males.

And although the early and rapid growth of the child may make him taller compared to his peers in the first period, but that at the end of puberty stops growth and increase in height in the child in the absence of Undergoing appropriate treatment, due to the cessation of skeletal maturation and bone growth at an early age, which prevents him from reaching the maximum length that can be achieved in the normal state.

On the other hand, a number of social and emotional problems face the child when he enters puberty early, for example, early puberty causes girls to feel embarrassed or turbulent about their menstrual cycle, or the growth of their breasts before other girls of their age, or dealing with With the girl is different.

Because she appears older, and it is worth noting that early puberty is also accompanied by the emergence of behavioral and emotional changes in the child, girls may suffer from irritability and moodiness, while boys appear to have sexual desire that does not fit their age, and aggression, so when noticing the emergence of any symptoms Or signs of early puberty on the child, you should visit a doctor and evaluate the health status.

Causes of precocious puberty

The causes of precocious puberty are classified into two types: peripheral causes and central causes.

In the case of central precocious puberty, the puberty process begins early in the child’s life, while the pattern and timing of the steps of the puberty process are natural.

Most children who start with central precocious puberty do not suffer from the presence of a problem Certain health conditions, or any specific reason that explains the occurrence of early puberty, although there are some rare cases of central precocious puberty whose cause is attributed to a specific problem, such as the emergence of tumors or defects in the brain, or exposure to injuries to the spinal cord and brain.

Peripheral early puberty is caused by the secretion of estrogen or testosterone in the body as a result of the growth of tumors in the adrenal gland, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, the emergence of problems related to the pituitary gland, or exposure to testosterone or estrogen from external sources such as.

The use of creams and ointments containing these Hormones, McCune-Albright syndrome, tumors and cysts in the ovaries in females, or tumors in the cells responsible for producing testosterone in the testicles when for males.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is accompanied by a deficiency in one of the enzymes needed to produce certain hormones, so the enzyme deficiency makes it difficult to produce one or more of the adrenal gland hormones, which leads to an overproduction of another type of natural hormone compounds to compensate for the deficiency.

McCune Albright is a disorder that affects different parts of the body, such as the skin, bones, and many hormone-producing tissues. It should be noted that there are a number of factors that may appear to be linked to early puberty, including the following:

Genetic factors: Early puberty sometimes occurs due to a specific genetic mutation that contributes to the secretion of sex hormones in the body. Often, a child who has this genetic mutation has a parent or relative who carries the same genetic defect.

Gender: Girls are ten times more likely to have central precocious puberty than boys.

Obesity: Although it is not known to what extent obesity is associated with early puberty, a number of studies have shown a link between obese young girls and an increased risk of early puberty, while it appears that there is no relationship between obesity and early puberty in boys.

Race: It has been found that African-American girls begin puberty one year earlier than other girls of white race, and some experts have agreed that puberty is earlier among African Americans if it begins before the age of 6 years.

International adoption: Children who are adopted from abroad are more likely to have precocious puberty than others, and the reason for this is unknown.

Health problems associated with puberty

There are a number of health problems and diseases that may appear for the first time during puberty. Among the possible problems that may accompany puberty are the following:

Gynecomastia: The hormonal changes that occur during puberty may result in the emergence of the problem of gynecomastia or enlargement of male breasts, and it is worth noting that this condition is temporary, and usually lasts for 6-18 months, and gynecomastia occurs at the age of approximately 13 years, It affects about half of normal male boys.
Sexually transmitted diseases: The chance of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections increases in cases where a teen engages in sexual activity during adulthood.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding: The cessation of ovulation may be one of the most common causes of abnormal menstrual bleeding among teenage girls, as some girls who have recently started menstruating suffer from prolonged menstruation, heavy menstrual blood, or irregular menstruation.
Vision changes: Myopia is one of the most likely vision problems in puberty, due to the growth of the axial diameter of the eye during this period.
Acne: hormonal changes that occur during puberty result in the appearance of acne in many teenage girls and boys, and acne is defined as inflammation that affects the sebaceous glands and hair follicles in the skin, which often spreads on the face, but may also appear on the neck , chest, back, or other parts of the body.
Anemia: The concentration of hemoglobin and iron in the blood increases during the normal period of puberty in the case of males, but on the other hand it does not increase in females during this period, but girls in their teenage years are more susceptible to anemia, and this may be attributed to several reasons, for example For example, teenage girls tend to eat less iron-containing foods than boys do, and lose blood during their menstrual cycle.
Lateral scoliosis: This problem may become worse in adulthood, or it may appear for the first time in the child during this stage, due to the increased speed of growth in puberty.
Musculoskeletal injuries
: Adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to musculoskeletal injuries during the growth spurt and during the growth of muscle mass in the body, since bone growth usually precedes the stage of complete bone mineralization, adolescents are prone to fractures, and besides this, the risk of sprains increases or stress in the child; Due to the limited movement in some joints of the body as a result of limb growth, which usually occurs before the growth of the trunk area during puberty.

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