Fetal abnormalities (anomaly)
Fetal abnormalities (anomaly)
Fetal malformations are a defect in the formation of a part or organ in the fetus’s body during its formation stage in the womb, so that this part or organ is formed or grows in a distorted and abnormal way as a result of several reasons. Most fetal anomalies occur in the first months of pregnancy.
That is, during the period of fetal organ formation, and they are discovered during pregnancy or immediately after birth; Such as: the gloved foot and the rabbit’s lip, and some of them are discovered in the first or second year of a child’s life.
Such as: congenital heart defects or hearing loss, and these abnormalities range from minor that do not affect the child to large ones that cause disability or even death.
Causes of fetal abnormalities (anomaly)
- Drinking alcohol during pregnancy.
- Taking certain types of medications during pregnancy, such as: medications for acne, radioactive iodine, and medications that contain testosterone.
- Environmental factors and high-dose radiation exposure during pregnancy.
- Infection with some viral diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy, such as German measles or toxoplasma virus.
When do fetal abnormalities (anomaly) appear?
Some types of malformations that affect the fetus’s organs are diagnosed early during the first three months, and there are other types that are diagnosed after six months of pregnancy, and other types after birth.
Especially morphological abnormalities, and other types are discovered after a period of birth, especially abnormalities related to the functions of Members.
Methods for detecting fetal abnormalities
- Three-dimensional or four-dimensional ultrasound scan done in the thirteenth week of pregnancy.
- Do triple blood tests in the thirteenth and fourteenth weeks of pregnancy.
- Conducting a four-dimensional examination in the fifth month to examine the fetus’s organs.
- Examination of the amniotic fluid in the sixteenth week to detect genetic diseases and birth defects by examining chromosomes.
List of fetal abnormalities (anomaly)
Heart malformations: they constitute a quarter of fetal malformations, and their severity ranges from mild; For example: the small opening between the ventricles or the atria, which closes on its own, and complex abnormalities that cause death.
Nervous system abnormalities: include the brain and spinal cord, and are considered more dangerous than heart abnormalities, the most important of which are: the presence of a mass in the lower back of the child, the absence of the brain, the small size of the skull or the absence of part of the skull, and hydrocephalus.
Abnormalities of the urinary system: such as: hypospadias, inversion of the bladder, and undescended testicles.
Digestive system abnormalities: such as: intestinal obstruction, hiatal hernia, and esophageal abnormalities.
Skin abnormalities: such as: vascular birthmarks, hemangiomas, and collodion infants.
Muscular system abnormalities: such as: hip dislocation, polydactyly or fusion, and fusion or adhesion of twins.
Eye abnormalities: such as: congenital glaucoma, congenital cataract, and congenital absence of the eyes.
Chromosome abnormalities: such as: Down syndrome and Patau’s syndrome.