Nausea and vomiting in adults – vomiting in infants and children

continuous vomiting causes


Nausea and vomiting can be defined as the forced, voluntary or involuntary emptying of stomach contents through the mouth or sometimes the nose.

It is rare for vomiting to cause pain, but it is considered an uncomfortable and unpleasant feeling.

Vomiting may be preceded by many signs such as: nausea, which is a person’s feeling that vomiting is about to occur, in addition to gagging, retching, thrusting, involuntary stomach reflexes, and mouth filling with saliva in order to protect the teeth from stomach acid, the need to move or bend over It helps to reduce those symptoms that precede vomiting: resorting to rest in a supported sitting or lying position, and in return, the practice of activities and movement may exacerbate nausea and lead to vomiting.

What helps prevent the contents of the fluid extruded from the stomach from entering the respiratory tract, preventing suffocation, is the presence of a reflex known as the gag reflex or gag reflex.

In some cases where this reflex does not work properly, a person may be exposed to the risk of suffocation as a result of vomiting, as in the case of people who vomit under the influence of drugs or alcohol, or who vomit while lying on their back.

It is worth noting that there are many different types of vomiting.

Yellow vomiting usually indicates the presence of bile in the vomit and usually occurs after eating.

Vomiting containing blood or bloody vomiting usually indicates a cut or scrape in the esophagus or stomach.

Vomiting similar to coffee grounds may be a sign of ulcers, GERD, stomach or liver cancer, or other abdominal diseases.

Continuous vomiting causes

Persistent and recurrent vomiting can be one of the main symptoms of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome, which is the sudden, recurring episodes of severe nausea and vomiting.

What characterizes this syndrome is vomiting several times per hour, and the continuation of a bout of vomiting from several hours to several days, which leads to a feeling of extreme fatigue and drowsiness.

The symptoms of this syndrome begin at the same time of the day and continue for the same length of time, and the severity of symptoms is similar to previous episodes.

These attacks may occur at any time, but they often begin during the early morning hours.

It is worth noting that the exact cause of this syndrome is not yet known, but some experts believe that neurological communication problems between the brain and the digestive system, problems related to the way the brain and the endocrine system respond to stress, and mutations in some genes may play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome.

The various triggers for a persistent vomiting episode include: emotional stress, anxiety or panic attacks, especially in adults, infections such as: colds, flu or chronic sinusitis, and getting excited before certain events such as: birthdays, vacations, or school trips, especially in children.

lack of sleep, physical exhaustion, allergies, excessively high or low temperatures, drinking alcohol, menstrual periods, motion sickness, fasting, eating certain foods such as: chocolate, cheese, and foods containing MSG.

Other causes of Continuous vomiting

  • Chemotherapy or radiation.
  • Gastroparesis is a condition in which the muscles of the stomach wall do not work properly, affecting the digestive process.
  • Intestinal obstruction.
  • Migraine headache.
  • Dizziness, motion sickness or a middle ear infection.
  • Viral gastroenteritis.
  • acute liver failure;
  • Alcohol drinking disorder.
  • Appendicitis.
  • Cholecystitis.
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • Having a heart attack or heart failure.
  • Hiatal hernia.
  • Hyperthyroidism.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Taking certain medications such as: aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, oral contraceptives, digitalis, opioids, and some antibiotics.
  • Meningitis is an inflammation of the pancreas.
  • Peptic ulcer.
  • Having a fever or suffering from severe pain.
  • Food poisoning.

When should you see a doctor

Situations in which a doctor should be consulted if the patient suffers from vomiting include the following:

Infants and children under six years of age: See a doctor if the child or infant has any of the following:

  • Vomiting persisting more than a few hours.
  • Suffering from diarrhea in addition to vomiting.
  • The appearance of signs of dehydration in the child or infant.
  • High temperature of more than 37.8 degrees Celsius.
  • The child has not urinated for six hours.

Children over the age of six: See a doctor if the child suffers from any of the following :

  • Vomiting continued for a day.
  • Persistent diarrhea with vomiting for more than 24 hours.
  • The appearance of signs of dehydration.
  • High temperature of more than 38.9 degrees Celsius.
  • The child has not urinated for six hours.

Causes of vomiting after eating

A person may experience a feeling of nausea after eating, especially if he has a viral stomach infection. Vomiting may also occur during cases of food poisoning, intestinal obstruction, appendicitis, migraine headaches, and stomach germs. Here are the precise details of cases of vomiting after eating:

Nausea: The main causes of nausea are severe pain from an injury, first trimester pregnancy, motion sickness, indigestion, food poisoning, and exposure to toxic chemicals.

Daily lifestyle: A person’s daily lifestyle and the things they do can lead to constant vomiting, especially after eating meals, for example, consuming large amounts of alcohol that damages the lining of the intestines or may interact with stomach acid, and both conditions lead to nausea and vomiting. 

Eating disorders: such as bulimia or loss of appetite, in both cases the person eats the wrong way, and these two cases lead to a feeling of nausea and vomiting immediately after eating.

Serious cases: These cases may lead to vomiting in a person, such as meningitis, appendicitis, concussion, brain tumor, and migraine headaches, and the doctor should always diagnose the condition to prescribe the appropriate treatment for it.

Cases that require medical intervention

In some cases, immediate medical intervention must be obtained if the patient is under six years old, and if he also suffers from the following symptoms besides vomiting:

  • Vomiting and diarrhea at the same time.
  • The appearance of symptoms of dehydration on the skin, such as wrinkles, irritability, weak pulse, or decreased consciousness.
  • Vomiting for two or three hours.
  • Very high temperature.

Vomiting is usually treated by taking medications that are prescribed by a specialist doctor, and its symptoms can also be relieved at home by eating light foods that do not contain fat such as bread and crackers, drinking cold liquids, eating small meals and dividing them throughout the day, and drinking a cup of ginger tea.

Home tips to stop vomiting

A person who suffers from vomiting, vomiting, regurgitation, or vomiting does not often need any special treatment to treat it, as what is required of the person is only taking care of himself and staying at home until he feels better, because vomiting in In adults, this usually does not indicate a serious problem.

General Tips

Stop eating solid food even when the person feels the urge to eat.

Maintaining body hydrated by sucking on pieces of ice or pieces of frozen fruit, and after the vomiting has stopped for an hour, it is recommended to try to drink 30 milliliters of fluid every 20 minutes for an hour, options include water, light sweetened tea, or soft, non-carbonated drinks, or Caffeine-free sports drinks, chicken broth, apple or grape juice mixed with water, as sugary drinks calm the stomach better than other drinks. 

And it is also recommended to avoid drinking grapefruit juice, tomatoes, oranges, or lemons, and if If the person suffers from diarrhea, he should avoid both apple juice and grape juice as well, and it is advised to avoid drinking milk products, alcohol or carbonated drinks.

And if vomiting does not occur again, the amount of fluids can be increased to 240 milliliters during the second hour, and fluids must continue to be drunk Sufficient to prevent dehydration after the second hour without vomiting.

Temporarily stop taking any oral medications, due to their negative effect on the vomiting process.

Add light foods slowly, if the person notices that they can drink different drinks for up to 6-8 hours without vomiting. Examples of light foods that are easy to digest are bananas, rice, applesauce, dry chips, or dry breakfast cereals. Or toast with caution not to use butter.

Eat small meals after a person notices their ability to eat solid food every few hours, as this helps the stomach to digest food slowly and gradually.

Stay away from any source of strong odors such as cigarette smell, perfume, or cooking smells.

Avoid eating spicy or fried food, processed foods, dairy products, or spices, or smoking and drinking alcohol because they may irritate the stomach.

Get a good rest.

Taking medications that prevent vomiting if the cause is taking a certain medication, recent surgery, or radiotherapy, and it should be noted here that any medication a person is taking should not be stopped without consulting a doctor.

Drinking oral moisturizing solutions when vomiting persists with diarrhea for more than 24 hours, in order to prevent and treat dehydration, as these solutions provide the body with balanced amounts of water, sugar and salts it needs, and it is good to mention that these solutions are available in pharmacies and do not need a prescription When using it, it is important to follow the instructions printed on it.

Washing the mouth with water and brushing the teeth if possible after vomiting, because the acid in the vomit may erode the enamel of the teeth and cause their decay.

A nursing mother continues to breastfeed her child despite vomiting, but it should be emphasized the need to drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration, and it is important to maintain personal hygiene and consult a doctor or health care provider for other advice.

Pregnancy tips

Eat toast, breakfast cereal, crackers, or dry foods before getting out of bed to beat morning sickness.

Eat cheese, lean red meat, or other protein-rich foods before bedtime.

Drinking various fluids such as water and fruit juice, or sucking pieces of ice during the day, and avoiding drinking a large amount of fluids at once.

Thirst, with a goal of drinking 8-12 glasses of water a day, because not getting enough fluids may cause dehydration, which makes nausea worse, and advises pregnant women to chew gum or eat hard candy when they notice a bad taste in the mouth that prevents them from Drinking water.

Eat light meals every 2-3 hours instead of 3 large meals during the day.

Avoid eating fried, greasy, or spicy foods.

Avoid foods with strong odors that can cause annoyance, and foods can be eaten cold or at room temperature.

Tips for children

Preventing dehydration is the most important goal when children vomit, but the child may refuse to drink fluids all the time, so it is recommended to follow the following methods to help encourage the child to drink different fluids:

Making ice cubes from hydrating solutions or liquids containing electrolyte substances.

Give the child gelatin as an alternative to liquids, as children may accept it.

Add water to fruit juice in order to dilute it, and reduce the amount of sugar in the juice, which may make the diarrhea that may accompany vomiting worse.

Giving the child hydration solutions 30-60 minutes after vomiting to reduce the possibility of vomiting again immediately, and it is a good idea to start with a small amount to make sure that the child accepts it.

Offer light foods to the child about 8 hours after he stops vomiting, as you can offer toast, biscuits, bananas, soups, and mashed potatoes, if these foods help fill and calm the stomach.

Types of antiemetics

Antiemetics help to inhibit the action of specific neurotransmitters responsible for stimulating nausea and vomiting, and although the feeling of nausea may appear to be a simple reaction from the body, the process is actually complex.

and therefore vomiting drugs vary and their uses vary according to the situation and the cause, and in general, the medications Commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting in adults is used less in children because of the lack of proven efficacy in them.

The potential risks associated with side effects, and the possibility of masking an underlying disease, but if vomiting is severe or persistent, it is possible to use these drugs with caution in children who increase They are over two years old.

Antiemetics associated with motion sickness

It is recommended to take medications to treat motion sickness, usually before the start of travel, with the aim of preventing nausea and vomiting, rather than trying to treat it after it occurs, and one of the commonly used medications is Hyoscine.

Which is available in the form of a patch placed on the skin behind the ear five hours before the time of travel In addition, some antihistamines may help prevent vomiting caused by motion sickness, and the principle of action of these drugs is to reduce the sensitivity of the inner ear to head movement, as it is known that the inner ear plays an important role in the person’s balance.

It is affected by sitting inside a moving car or on a boat, and it is worth noting that some of these antibiotics are available without the need for a prescription, and it is important to note that these drugs may cause side effects, so it is advised to consult a pharmacist or doctor before using any of them, especially in the absence of Previously used, these medications include the following options:

Antiemetics associated with surgery

People who need anesthesia for surgery usually experience nausea and vomiting after surgery, and in this case, drugs belonging to different groups can be used, such as: serotonin receptor blockers, or dopamine receptor blockers blockers, or some corticosteroid medications.

Examples of these medications that the doctor may prescribe after surgery are the following:

  • Dexamethasone.
  • Droperidol.
  • Granisetron.
  • Metoclopramide.
  • Ondansetron.

Antiemetics during pregnancy

Antiemetics can be used by pregnant women who suffer from morning sickness to relieve symptoms associated with it, and these drugs are usually prescribed only in severe cases such as hyperemesis gravidarum, or when nausea and vomiting interfere with Daily life.

And it is important for the doctor to explain to the pregnant woman about any possible side effects of the medicines used, whether on the mother or the child, and the options for medicines used to treat vomiting during pregnancy include the following:

  • Dimenhydrinate.
  • Prochlorperazine.
  • promethazine.
  • Vitamin B6. Metoclopramide, a doctor may prescribe it when a pregnant woman does not respond to other treatment options.
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