Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, Kinds, And Treatment Options

Bipolar Disorder Symptoms, Causes, Kinds, And Treatment Options

Definition of bipolar disorder?

When it comes to bipolar illness, which used to be known as manic depression, dramatic mood swings are the rule rather than the exception.

Periods of manic or hypomanic euphoria and enhanced energy (referred to as mania or hypomania) alternate with periods of depression in those who have bipolar disorder.

Also, they may experience a combination of both mania and sadness at the same time.

These mood fluctuations are much more dramatic than the typical ups and downs experienced by most people.

Mood, energy, and behavior changes are noticeable, and they may last anywhere from a few days to a few weeks.

It is possible to develop signs of bipolar disorder at any point in your life, although it is most common between the ages of 15 and 24 when it first appears.

Extreme mood swings are a hallmark of bipolar illness, a diagnosable mental health disease.

Bipolar disorder is a mental illness that needs specialized medical attention from a psychiatrist.
The most severe repercussions of this condition may be managed and prevented with early and adequate therapy.

In order to accurately diagnose bipolar illness, a thorough medical and mental health history must be taken.

People with bipolar illness often seek medical attention during a depressive episode, and many are incorrectly diagnosed with major depressive disorder rather than bipolar disorder.

People who are misdiagnosed are more likely to suffer from mental health issues because of the delay in treatment.

Manic or hypomanic episodes and suicidal thoughts may be induced by antidepressants such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are the gold standard for treating depression.

People and their loved ones must be honest about prior moments of inflated self-esteem, self-importance and excessive energy as well as any other indicators of mania and hypomania while seeking therapy for their mental health issues.

Among the most common are:

  • the highs and lows of life
  • In the past, manic depression and bipolar sickness were used to describe bipolar disorder.
  • The condition of bipolar disorder is not uncommon. 
  • Bipolar illness affects 2.8 percent of American adults, or roughly 5 million individuals, according to the National Institute of Mental Health.
  • Despite the fact that there is no known cure for bipolar illness, there are several effective therapies on the market.
  • These therapy alternatives may teach you how to better control your mood swings, which will benefit your symptoms as well as your general well-being.

Bipolar Disorder: What Is the Root Causes?

Bipolar disorder has several causes.

Nobody has a clue as to how or why someone gets bipolar illness.
Multiple biological and life experience elements have been shown to raise a child’s likelihood of acquiring the disease, according to the most recent findings.

Studies have revealed that hereditary factors add to the likelihood of bipolar illness by as much as 50%.
However, just 6% of children who have a parent with bipolar illness go on to get the disease themselves.
It is estimated that only a small percentage of parents who have been classified as bipolar have children who also suffer from the illness.

Certain environmental variables have been linked to an increased incidence of depression in youngsters, which in turn raises the possibility of them developing bipolar disorder.

There are a number of possible risk factors, including:


the continuing effects of climate change, such as:abuse, violence, or other trauma caused by a parent with mental illness who is also misusing drugs or alcohol

depression has a long history in my family

Genetic and environmental risk factors may influence brain chemistry and development, even if we don’t fully understand the processes.

All of the brain’s processes, including emotions, are controlled by neurotransmitters, which are specialized molecules that convey signals back and forth between neurons.

Medications for bipolar disorder address chemical abnormalities in serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, which are thought to be the most probable triggers of the illness.

Youngsters with bipolar illness may have brains that develop and mature differently than typical children. Treatment approaches including medication and talk therapy may be able to restore some regularity to the brain’s chemical balance and growth over time.

A few variables are being studied by researchers to see if they may explain why certain individuals are susceptible to it.

When it comes to genetics, for example, it may just be a question of your family’s history of the condition.
In addition, scientists aren’t entirely sure how or why the development of your brain plays a role, but they believe it does.

What Are the Risk Factors for Bipolar Disorder?

Bipolar disorder generally begins in late adolescence or early adulthood for those who suffer from it. It is possible for it to begin early in life. Bipolar disorder may be passed on from generation to generation.
It affects both men and women equally.

People who experience “rapid cycling,” when they have four or more different mood episodes within a year, are more likely to be female.

Women with bipolar illness are more likely than males to suffer from depression.
Women are more prone than males to acquire bipolar disorder II and be impacted by seasonal mood swings later in life.

Medical and mental health disorders are also more prevalent among women. Thyroid illness, migraines, and anxiety problems are a few examples of these medical conditions.


Bipolar Disorder Symptoms, Causes, Kinds, And Treatment Options
Bipolar Disorder Symptoms, Causes, Kinds, And Treatment Options

Bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymia are all forms of bipolar disorder.

Manic-Depressive Disorder

A manic episode is required for the diagnosis of bipolar
Prior to and immediately after a manic episode, you may suffer hypomanic or major depressive episodes, both of which are milder versions of manic episodes. 
People of both sexes are equally affected by this kind of bipolar illness.

Mood Disorders II

Those with bipolar II have one major depressive episode lasting at least two weeks.At least one hypomanic episode lasts for around four days.
According to a 2017 analysis, women are more likely to suffer from this kind of bipolar illness.


People with cyclothymia suffer periods of hypomania and depression.
They have symptoms that are shorter and less severe than those induced by bipolar I or II disease.
For just a few weeks or months at a period, most persons with this illness are free of any signs of depression.

When discussing your diagnosis with your doctor, he or she may provide further information regarding the kind of bipolar illness you have.

Some persons have mood symptoms that are similar to, but do not exactly match, the three kinds listed above.
If this is the case, you may be diagnosed with:
additional psychiatric conditions associated with bipolar illness Disorders linked to bipolar and other mental illnesses

Symptoms of bipolar disorder

At least one episode of either manic or hypomanic behavior is required for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder.
These both entail sensations of enthusiasm, impulsivity, and high energy, although hypomania is regarded less severe than mania.

  • Symptoms of mania may have a negative impact on your daily life, causing issues at work or at home.
  • Symptoms of hypomania usually do not.

Major depressive episodes, or “down” emotions, are also a part of bipolar illness for certain individuals.

Bipolar disorder has three primary symptoms: mania, hypomania, and depression.

It’s important to note that these symptoms might appear in various ways depending on the kind of bipolar illness you have.

Symptoms of bipolar I

  • Bipolar I condition must be diagnosed by:
    a minimum of one maniac episode lasting at least one week effects on one’s ability to carry out everyday tasks no other medical or mental health problem or drug abuse is to blame for the symptoms Psychosis or a combination of mania and depression may also manifest as a set of symptoms (known as mixed features).
  • In the long run, they might have a greater influence on your life.
  •  As soon as you notice any of these symptoms, don’t hesitate to get help from a qualified specialist (more on this later).
  • Even while hypomania and despair aren’t required for a bipolar I diagnosis, many persons with the disorder do report them.

Symptoms of manic-depressive illness

The following symptoms must be present in order to make the diagnosis of bipolar II:

  • At least one hypomanic episode lasting at least four days and including three or more hypomanic symptoms
  • symptoms of hypomania that are noticeable to others, yet may not have an impact on your everyday existence
  • at least one episode of major depression lasting more than two weeks at least one episode of major depression involving five or more core symptoms of depression that have a substantial influence on your daily life
  • During a bout of despair, Bipolar II may sometimes include psychotic symptoms.
  • You may also suffer bouts of mixed mood, in which case you may show signs of both despair and hypomania.
  • However, with bipolar II, you won’t have a heightened state of agitation.
  • You’ll be diagnosed with bipolar I if you experience a manic episode.

Symptoms of Cyclothymia

  • cyclothymia can be diagnosed with the following:
  • off-and-on episodes of hypomania and melancholy lasting for at least two years (1 year for children and adolescents)The presence of symptoms for at least half of the two years and the absence of symptoms for more than two months in a row do not constitute an episode of hypomania or depression.
  • non-medical or mental health-related symptoms or drug abuse symptoms that cause considerable anguish and negatively impact everyday living are included.
  • Cyclothymia is characterized by a fluctuating state of mind.
  • They may not be as severe as bipolar I or II symptoms.
  •  Despite this, symptoms tend to persist longer, so you’ll have a shorter period of time without them.
  • If hypomania is mild, it may not have much of an influence on your everyday life.
  • If your symptoms don’t meet the criteria for a severe depressive episode, depression may nonetheless cause significant suffering and interfere with your ability to operate on a daily basis.
  • A hypomanic or depressed episode will likely shift your diagnosis to another form of bipolar illness or severe depression, depending on your symptoms.

Therapies and Treatments

A wide range of individuals, including those suffering from the most severe types of bipolar disease, may benefit from treatment.

Medication and psychotherapy, sometimes known as “talk therapy,” are commonly used in a successful treatment regimen.

For most people, bipolar disorder is a long-term condition.
Over time, mania and sadness tend to recur.

The majority of persons with bipolar illness are symptom-free between episodes, but some people may continue to experience mood swings even after the episodes have ended.
These symptoms may be alleviated with long-term therapy.


When it comes to treating the symptoms of bipolar illness, there are drugs that may assist.
People may need to test a variety of drugs and work with their doctor to discover the optimal one for them.
In general, mood stabilizers and second-generation (or “atypical”) antipsychotics are used for the treatment of bipolar disorder.

Medications for sleep disorders or anxiety disorders may also be included in treatment strategies. 
A mood stabilizer and an antidepressant are often used to treat bipolar disorder’s depressive periods, to avoid precipitating a manic episode.


People with bipolar illness may benefit from psychotherapy, which is often known as “talk therapy.” For a number of therapeutic methods, psychotherapy refers to identifying and changing troublesome feelings, beliefs, and behaviors.

People with bipolar illness and their loved ones may benefit from it in a variety of ways.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychoeducation may be used to treat a wide range of illnesses, such as anxiety and depression.

Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) and family-focused therapy are emerging treatments created particularly for bipolar illness.

Determining whether early intervention with rigorous psychotherapy may prevent or reduce the full-blown development of bipolar illness is an important research subject.
To learn more about the many forms of psychotherapies, go to the NIMH’s Psychotherapies homepage.

Things You Can Do After Treatment

Maintaining a Regular Exercise Routine: It’s good for your heart and brain to engage in aerobic activity like running, brisk walking, swimming or biking on a regular basis.
Anaerobic exercise such as weightlifting, yoga, and Pilates may also be beneficial, as shown by several studies.

Begin an exercise programmed only after consulting with a doctor.
Keeping a Life Chart: Mood swings may occur even with good medication. 
When a patient and health care professional work together and freely discuss their concerns and options, treatment is more successful.

Keeping a daily diary of one’s moods, treatments, sleep patterns, and significant life events may be a useful tool for people with bipolar illness and their medical professionals in monitoring and treating their condition over time.

Patients may readily share data obtained by smartphone applications with their health care doctors and therapists, including self-reports, self-ratings, and activity data. Obtaining Medical Help A family doctor or health care provider is a wonderful place to start when looking for assistance.
Talk to your doctor or a psychiatrist if you or someone you know is showing signs of bipolar disorder.
They will inquire about your or the individual you’re worried about history of mental illness, as well as any family history of mental disease.

The individual will also have a full psychiatric assessment to see whether they are likely to have bipolar disorder or another mental illness.

Diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder include observing the patient’s symptoms and ruling out other possible causes (such as low thyroid or mood symptoms caused by drug or alcohol abuse).
How bad are they? Are they still going strong? How frequently do these occurrences take place?

towards the very end Bipolar disorder (formerly known as manic depression or manic-depressive disorder) has more severe peaks and falls than other mental illnesses.A person suffering from bipolar disorder will experience extremes in mood, energy, thought, and behaviour, such as manic highs and depressive lows.

Bipolar disorder’s mood swings may endure for days, weeks, or even months at a time.

Bipolar disease causes mood fluctuations that are so extreme that they may harm your work or school performance, your personal relationships, and your ability to go about your everyday activities normally.

During a manic episode, you may make rash decisions like quitting your job, running up enormous credit card bills, or waking up refreshed after just two hours of sleep.

Depressive episodes are characterized by a lack of energy and a sense of despair brought on by the combination of being jobless and in debt.
Bipolar disorder’s aetiology is still a mystery, however it does seem to run in families.

Bipolar disorder often has its first manic or depressed episode in adolescence or early adulthood.

A lot of individuals with bipolar illness are missed or misdiagnosed, which results in needless pain. It’s essential to get familiar with the signs and symptoms of bipolar illness if you want to improve your chances of recovery.

An important first step in feeling better and regaining control of your life is admitting to yourself that something is wrong.

Tags: mental disorders, Psychiatric illness

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