Autoimmune diseases: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

autoimmune diseases causes

Reasons for increasing immunity in the body

(Autoimmune diseases causes) The direct cause of increased immunity in the body is not yet known, that is, it is not known what causes the immune system to mistakenly recognize and attack the body’s cells and tissues, and in general, an excessive increase in the activity of the immune system.

Strengthen the immune system, 25 foods you must eat

Leads to many autoimmune disorders. disease, which often leads to inflammation, and if it persists, eventually results in scarring and destruction of the organs that consist of the affected tissue. Scientists and researchers are still exploring the thousands of environmental and genetic influences that may make people more susceptible to autoimmune diseases.

To understand the matter more, it is indicated that in the event of autoimmune diseases or disorders, the immune system recognizes some tissues of the body itself as foreign substances, and attacks them accordingly, as it manufactures antibodies and other cells that attack and destroy these tissues.

Risk factors for increased immunity in the body

It is noteworthy that there are many risk factors that increase the likelihood of individuals developing autoimmune diseases, which we will continue to talk about in detail, and the following is a mention of some of them:

What are the most common causes of autoimmune diseases?

Smoking: Smoking contributes to chronic systemic inflammation, and as a result, some autoimmune disorders and their symptoms may worsen.

Gender: Although this has not been proven true yet, women may be more susceptible to autoimmune diseases, due to hormonal differences between men and women, especially in estrogen and testosterone. that autoimmune diseases may begin to appear in women, usually during the reproductive period; That is, at the age of 15-44 years.

Race: Autoimmune diseases may be more common in some races than others, for example lupus is more severe in Hispanics and African Americans, while type 1 diabetes is more common in Caucasians. more than others.

Family history: Having a family history of autoimmune diseases increases the risk of individuals developing them. Some families may have many individuals with different autoimmune diseases, while some families never appear to have such diseases.

Obesity: Obesity is a major environmental factor that may contribute to the emergence and development of autoimmune diseases.

Age: Some autoimmune diseases begin in childhood in particular, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, and in general, most autoimmune diseases affect young and middle-aged groups.

Environment: Exposure to certain environmental events may cause autoimmune diseases, or develop them to become worse if you already have them, such as exposure to certain chemicals, sunlight, or even viral and bacterial infections.

Birth control: Some contraceptives contain a high percentage of estrogen, so they may be associated with an increased risk of autoimmune diseases such as lupus and Crohn’s disease, or may increase their severity, and more research is needed to support these links.

Vitamin D deficiency: Low levels of vitamin D are observed in people with autoimmune diseases; It was indicated that low levels of vitamin D may be a result of autoimmune disorders, however, there is no evidence of the benefit of vitamin D supplements in protecting against autoimmune disorders, but on the contrary, taking them may cause the exacerbation of these disorders in sufferers.

Physical activity: In general, it has been observed that people with autoimmune diseases are less physically active compared to others.

Stress or tension: It has been observed that a large number of people with autoimmune diseases suffer from uncommon stress or tension, and they were not present before they contracted the disease.

Prevention of increased immunity in the body

Although most autoimmune diseases cannot be prevented, following a healthy lifestyle, such as maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding smoking, may reduce the risk of infection, and the importance of immediate diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases is indicated, if this helps reduce or delay the onset of autoimmune diseases.

Serious complications and improving the quality of life of the affected individuals. It is worth noting the existence of a group of tests whose results may be able to reveal the individual’s risk of developing certain disorders, and therefore may constitute a motive for taking preventive measures; Especially when there is a family history of autoimmune diseases. Examples of these tests include the following:

Test for antinuclear antibodies, abbreviated ANA.
IgA, IgG, and IgM immunoglobulin tests.

Autoimmune diseases

Why do autoimmune diseases occur?
Autoimmune diseases are defined as diseases caused by the immune system attacking abnormally healthy cells and tissues of the body as foreign bodies, which is in contrast to the normal healthy immune system function of protecting the body from foreign and pathogenic elements. So far, the main cause of autoimmune diseases has been identified.

But the hyperactivity of the immune system and its production of antibodies as a result of exposure to an unknown stimulus may lead to attacking healthy body tissues instead of attacking the foreign bodies that stimulate them, and the risk of developing these diseases increases in If there is a family history of it.

And autoimmune diseases may affect any of the different parts of the body, including: the brain, heart, skin, eyes, nerves, muscles, joints, lungs, kidneys, glands, blood vessels, and the digestive system. Now the discovery of more than 100 types of autoimmune diseases that may affect humans.

As a result of the similar symptoms of many autoimmune diseases, it may be difficult for the doctor to diagnose these diseases or differentiate between them to determine the type of disease, and this in turn may lead to stress and frustration for the affected person as well.

And some autoimmune diseases are characterized by that they may come in the form of flashes of symptoms that Followed by periods of apathy and disappearance of symptoms, and the first symptoms of autoimmune diseases are a feeling of fatigue, a slight rise in body temperature and muscle pain, in addition to inflammation.

Which is the main sign that accompanies most autoimmune diseases, which is accompanied by swelling, pain, redness and heat in the affected area. As for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, it depends mainly on the type of disease, and mostly aims to reduce the inflammation associated with the disease, and the doctor may prescribe corticosteroids or some other drugs to help curb the immune response in some cases.

Types of Autoimmune Diseases – List of Autoimmune Diseases

We will learn about the types of autoimmunity and we will talk about them in detail.
What are the 10 most common autoimmune diseases?

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that mainly affects the joints, as this disease affects the lining of the joints, causing painful swelling, which in turn may lead to joint deformity and erosion of the joints.

The surrounding bones, and the effect of rheumatoid arthritis may extend to other parts of the body in some cases, such as the lungs, heart, skin, eyes and blood vessels, and this is usually caused by the chronic inflammation associated with the disease.

And it is worth noting that although severe cases of inflammation Rheumatoid joints may lead to deformities or physical disability in the affected person, but new and advanced treatments have contributed to controlling the disease and preventing its progression to advanced stages in many cases.


Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that affects the skin and causes red, swollen, scaly patches to appear on the skin, which often affects specific areas of the skin such as the scalp, knees, and elbows, but it may also affect different parts of the skin.

Psoriasis mostly affects the outer layer of the skin, and some people may experience itching, pain or tingling and burning in the affected area of ​​the skin, and it should be noted that psoriasis is a non-communicable disease.

And skin lesions that may appear as a result of the disease are not It is also contagious, and the disease affects both men and women alike. It also affects people of different races at different rates. Psoriasis is divided into five different types, which are as follows:

  • Erythrodermic psoriasis.
  • Pustular psoriasis.
  • Inverse psoriasis.
  • Guttate psoriasis.
  • Plaque psoriasis.

Plaque psoriasis is the most common type of psoriasis, and it appears in the form of red and swollen patches of skin covered with a layer of dead skin of a silvery-white color, which often leads to pain and itching, in addition to cracking and bleeding, and these spots and scalp usually appear on the knees The elbows and lower back, and as for tarry psoriasis, it is the second most common type of psoriasis, and affects about 10% of people with psoriasis, and is represented by the appearance of skin lesions in the form of small dots, and this type of psoriasis usually begins in childhood, or at the beginning of the stage Puberty.

inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

The term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is used to describe two types of inflammatory diseases that may affect the intestines, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, and the inflammation in this case appears in the inner layer. The deep lining of the colon is accompanied by a number of symptoms, such as: chronic diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, abdominal pain, anal bleeding or blood with stool, and chronic inflammation in this case leads to damage in the digestive canal, and the following is a statement of some of the differences Between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis:

Crohn’s disease: Crohn’s disease is characterized by the appearance of inflamed spots in different areas of the digestive tract that are adjacent to healthy tissues, and inflammation in this case may affect several layers of the lining wall of the digestive system, and inflammation can affect different parts of the digestive system, starting from the mouth to the anus. Crohn’s disease often begins in the small intestine before the large intestine or colon.

Ulcerative colitis: This disease appears in the form of scattered spots and includes all tissues of the affected areas, and is limited to the colon and rectum area only, and often starts from the rectal area and later moves to the colon, and inflammation in this case affects the inner layer of the lining of the colon.

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, which leads to a disturbance in the transmission of information in the brain and between the brain and various parts of the body. Almost three times more men are infected with the disease, and the symptoms associated with the disease and caused by the disturbance of nerve signals differ from one person to another, and the symptoms differ with the progression of the disease based on the percentage of damage done and the area affected by the disease.

  • Numbness, tingling.
  • Fatigue.
  • vision disturbances.
  • Weakness and lethargy.
  • difficulty walking
  • Cramping or rigidity.
  • sexual disorders
  • dizziness or lightheadedness.
  • Bladder disorders.
  • Intestinal disorders.
  • Pain and itching.
  • emotional disturbances
  • Depression.
  • Cognitive or mental disorders.

Type 1 diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus type 1 usually begins suddenly, and is characterized by the lack of production of the hormone insulin (insulin) or the production of very small amounts of it, which leads to a high level of sugar in the blood than the normal range (Hyperglycemia). In addition to a disorder of the metabolism of carbohydrates, or sugars, proteins and fats, this type of diabetes mostly affects children and adolescents before the age of 30, and type 1 diabetes can be controlled through a healthy diet and exercise. Appropriate exercise and insulin injections. Symptoms that may accompany type 1 diabetes include:

  • The appearance of a mouth odor similar to the smell of fruits.
  • Fatigue and general fatigue.
  • Fatigue.
  • Polyphagia.
  • Lose weight.
  • High blood sugar.
  • Ketonuria.
  • Glycosuria.
  • Frequent urination or polyuria.
  • polydipsia

Exophthalmic goitre

Exophthalmic goitre or Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland, which causes hyperthyroidism, one of the most common causes of hyperthyroidism. It is worth noting that the incidence of women with Graves’ disease is approximately 7-8 times higher than that of men.

And it is the only type of hyperthyroidism that may be accompanied by inflammation of the eyes, exophthalmos and swelling of the tissues surrounding them, and in the context it is worth saying that most of the accompanying symptoms The disease is caused by an excess of thyroid hormones, including the following:

  • Trembling hands
  • Increased heart rate.
  • sleep disturbance.
  • Lose weight.
  • Inability to tolerate high temperatures.
  • Muscle weakness.
  • The appearance of some psychological and neurological symptoms.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

Hashimoto’s disease is one of the most common autoimmune diseases among women than men, and this disease leads to the destruction of thyroid gland cells, which leads to insufficient activity of the gland, as it is the most common cause of hypothyroidism And the emergence of various symptoms, 

Such as: excessive cold feeling, constipation, fatigue, weight gain, and increased bleeding associated with the menstrual cycle in women, and it is worth noting that the symptoms accompanying the disease may not appear until several years after infection, and often begin to notice Swelling in the neck as a result of goiter, difficulty swallowing, or swelling in the throat, but in a number of cases, the affected person may not show any clear symptoms.

Addison’s disease

Addison’s disease, or primary adrenal insufficiency, is a disease of the adrenal glands caused by damage to the outer layer of the gland.

The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system. The endocrine system is important, as each person naturally has two adrenal glands located in the upper part of the kidney, and the adrenal gland produces some hormones that affect all the different organs of the body.

Such as cortisol and aldosterone, It is worth noting that the adrenal gland stops producing an adequate amount of steroid hormones when approximately 90% of the adrenal cortex is damaged, which in turn leads to the onset of symptoms of Addison’s disease, such as weight loss. Fatigue, joint, abdominal and muscle pain, depression, and some other symptoms may appear in the advanced stages of the disease, such as: nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. No, and the desire to eat salt.

And it is worth noting that the symptoms associated with Addison’s disease may be associated with a number of other health problems, and although autoimmunity is one of the causes of Addison’s disease, there are a group of other reasons that may lead to disease as well. .

Alopecia areata

Alopecia areata is characterized by hair loss in the form of patches in specific areas of the scalp often, or in other parts of the body in some cases, and these patches appear suddenly, and in most cases no obvious symptoms appear except Hair loss on the affected person, so he may not feel the disease unless he is alerted by another person to lose part of the hair, such as the barber, and in some cases the affected person may feel tingling or burning in the affected area.

Autoimmune diseases causes

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