Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

What is ADHD ?

ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are pervasive, debilitating, and age inappropriate. 

Some people with ADHD have trouble managing their emotions or have executive function issues.

Symptoms must be present for at least six months and create issues in at least two settings for a diagnosis to be made (such as school, home, work, or recreational activities).

Paying attention difficulties in youngsters can lead to low academic achievement. It’s also linked to other mental illnesses and drug addiction.

Many persons with ADHD maintain sustained attention for things they find engaging or gratifying, known as hyperfaces, despite the fact that it causes damage, especially in modern culture.

In the vast majority of instances, the exact reason or causes remain unknown. Genetic factors are thought to account for around 75% of the risk.

Toxins and infections during pregnancy, as well as brain damage, are possible dangers. It does not appear to be linked to parenting or disciplinary styles.

When diagnosed using the DSM-IV criteria, it affects roughly 5–7% of children, while when diagnosed using the ICD-10 criteria, it affects about 1–2% of children.

[requires citation] It was projected that 84.7 million individuals were affected globally as of 2019.Rates are comparable across nations, and discrepancies in rates are primarily due to how the disease is diagnosed.

ADHD is diagnosed two times more frequently in males than in girls, despite the fact that the illness is frequently missed in girls or recognized later in life due to symptoms that differ from diagnostic criteria.

Between 30–50% of persons diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms throughout maturity, and 2–5% of adults have the illness.

Adults may experience inner restlessness rather than hyperactivity.Adults frequently acquire coping mechanisms in order to compensate for their disabilities.It can be difficult to distinguish the disease from other illnesses, as well as high levels of activity within the usual range of behavior.

The treatment of ADHD varies by country, but it typically include a mix of drugs, therapy, and lifestyle modifications. As an initial reaction, the British guideline stresses environmental changes and ADHD education for individuals and professionals. If symptoms continue, parent instruction, medication, or psychotherapy (particularly cognitive behavioral therapy) may be suggested, depending on the age of the child. Medications and behavioral therapy should be used simultaneously, according to Canadian and American recommendations, with the exception of preschool-aged children, who should receive behavioral therapy alone. Stimulant drugs are the most effective pharmacological therapy, albeit relief is temporary and there may be negative effects if the prescription is stopped.

Since the 1970s, ADHD, its diagnosis, and treatment have been a source of debate. Clinicians, teachers, lawmakers, parents, and the media have all been involved in the debates. The causes of ADHD and the usage of stimulant drugs in its therapy are discussed. ADHD is now a well-established clinical diagnosis in both children and adults, with the scientific community mostly debating how it should be diagnosed and treated. From 1980 to 1987, the ailment was recognized as attention deficit disorder (ADD), and before to that, it was known as hyperkinetic response of children. Since the 18th century, medical literature has identified symptoms that are comparable to those of ADHD.

Symptoms 

ADHD is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity (restlessness in adults), disruptive conduct, and impulsivity.
Academic challenges, as well as relationship issues, are common.
It’s tough to draw a line between typical levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and major levels requiring intervention, therefore the symptoms might be difficult to identify.

types

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood ailment characterized by inattention and distractibility, as well as hyperactivity. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association describes three types of ADHD: inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, and mixed.

ADHD is classified into three types: inattentive (ADHD-PI or ADHD-I), hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-PH or ADHD-HI), and mixed (ADHD-PH or ADHD-HI) (ADHD-C).

Inattentive

In children, 6 or more of the following symptoms, and in adults, 5 or more of the following symptoms, excluding circumstances where the symptoms are better explained by another mental or medical condition:

  • Overlooks facts or makes thoughtless errors on a regular basis.
  • Has a hard time focusing on one work or recreational activity at a time.
  • When talked to, he frequently looks not to be paying attention, even when there is no visible distraction.
  • Frequently fails to complete jobs because he does not finish following directions.
  • Regularly fails to organize projects and activities, meet deadlines, and keep possessions in order Is often hesitant to engage in tasks that need sustained concentration Loses items frequently, particularly those essential for tasks
  • In adults and teens, is readily sidetracked by unrelated things, such as ideas.
  • Frequently forgets everyday tasks or has a tendency to forget while finishing them

Hyperactive-Impulsive

In children, 6 or more of the following symptoms, and in adults, 5 or more of the following symptoms, excluding circumstances where the symptoms are better explained by another mental or medical condition:

  • Is prone to fidgeting or wriggling in his or her seat.
  • Has a hard time sitting still during eating, schoolwork, work, and other activities.
  • Frequently finds himself in inopportune circumstances. This might manifest as restlessness in adults and teens.
  • Frequently unable to engage in leisure activities or play peacefully.
  • When not in motion, seems to be in continual motion or uncomfortable.
  • Frequently speaks excessively.
  • Frequently replies a question before it is completed or completes other people’s sentences.
  • They frequently struggle to wait their turn, especially in lines.
  • Frequently interrupts or intrudes on other people’s conversations or activities, or uses other people’s property or by taking use of other people’s belongings without their permission.

Combined

  • Both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD criteria must be met.

Symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity are less common in girls and women with ADHD, while inattention and distractibility are more common.
 In teenagers and adults with ADHD, hyperactive symptoms fade with age and are replaced with inner restlessness.
Emotional dysregulation is widely recognized as a prevalent symptom of ADHD, despite the fact that it is not classified as an official symptom.
Social skills, such as social interaction and developing and sustaining connections, are more likely to be a challenge for people with ADHD of all ages. This applies to all types of presentations. 
In comparison to 10–15 percent of non-ADHD children and adolescents, almost half of children and adolescents with ADHD face social rejection from their peers. 
People with attention deficiencies have a hard time comprehending verbal and nonverbal language, which can make social interactions challenging. 
They may also lose track of discussions, overlook social signs, and struggle to master social skills.

Anger management issues, as well as poor handwriting and delays in speech, language, and motor development, are more likely in children with ADHD.
Many children with ADHD have an attention span that is equal to or higher than that of ordinary children for tasks and subjects that they find intriguing, despite the fact that it creates substantial difficulties.

What’s the difference between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD)?
Although ADHD is the only name used to describe this condition, there are four main types of ADHD presentations: ADHD Inattentive Presentation, ADHD Hyperactive/Impulsive Presentation, ADHD Combined Presentation (both inattention and H/I behavior), and Unspecified ADHD.
What aggravates the symptoms of ADHD?

Depending on a person’s age, certain actions are anticipated. Because everyone’s brain does not grow at the same rate, some people may have poor cognitive functions while others do not. A youngster of ten years old, for example, may have the talents of an eight-year-old child rather than his or her classmates of the same age. As a result, the problem isn’t that ADHD becomes worse as you or your child gets older; it’s that the youngster’s talents don’t develop in lockstep with his or her age.

When it comes to children, teenagers, and adults, how is ADHD diagnosed?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

A healthcare professional must complete three activities in order to diagnose a kid. The healthcare provider must: 1) recognize ADHD symptom criteria 2) rule out alternate sources of symptoms3) recognize concomitant illnesses (other conditions such as depression or anxiety).

What should I do to prepare for my child’s ADHD consultation?

If you suspect your kid has a problem with attention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity, and it’s affecting his or her behavior at home or at school, the next step is to consult with a physician.
If your child’s symptoms are interfering with his or her schooling, call the school and ask for an examination. Be as precise as possible when making this request regarding the sort of educational or behavioral issues your kid is experiencing.
If there is evidence of a handicap that impacts a child’s learning, the school must assess him or her (ages three to 21). 
This assessment is free, and it must contain suitable standardized examinations as required by law. Testing in school may result in classroom modifications. 
The school will not diagnose ADHD, but will notice the symptoms and frequently award a “Other Health Impaired” label (OHI). Bring a copy of the school report to your pediatrician’s appointment.
If required, your child’s family provider may recommend that you take him or her to a specialist who specializes in ADHD and other developmental, behavioral, or mental health issues.

What can I anticipate if I or my child has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?


ADHD is a complex disorder with a wide range of symptoms. If you or your child has ADHD, learn everything you can about the behaviors that make life difficult for you. Take into account medications and behavioral therapies. These will be handled by your healthcare practitioner. He or she will summaries the findings of the ADHD evaluation and make treatment recommendations. In most cases, a mix of medication and behavioral therapy is suggested. A qualified behavioral health doctor can provide you or your kid broad instructions for treating ADHD, which may be adapted to your family’s circumstances and your child’s strengths and limitations.

ADHD is a multifaceted disorder with a wide range of symptoms. If you or your kid has ADHD, learn as much as you can about the behaviors that cause problems in your life. Take a look at the medications and behavioral therapies that are available. These will be addressed by your healthcare practitioner. He or she will summaries the findings of the ADHD assessment and make treatment recommendations. In general, a mix of medication and behavioral treatment is advised. A skilled behavioral health therapist can provide broad suggestions for managing your own or your child’s ADHD, which may be customized to your family’s circumstances as well as your child’s strengths and limitations.

Tags: mental disorders, Psychiatric illness

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