An IUD may cause a variety of issues – IUD Risks and Complications 

An IUD may cause a variety of issues - IUD Risks and Complications 

Mirena Adverse Reactions

Common adverse effects of the Mirena IUD include irregular menstrual flow and spotting between periods, abdominal/pelvic discomfort, and back discomfort.

These are usually gone after a few months of being implanted.

Device migration, perforation, pelvic inflammatory illness, and ectopic pregnancy are among the serious but uncommon Mirena adverse effects that might occur.

Some women may need surgery to have the IUD removed.

Mirena Side Effects That Are Common

The majority of women who take Mirena do not have any significant adverse effects.

Common IUD side effects, such as minor cramping or bleeding, may persist anywhere from a few hours to several days after the birth control device is implanted in the body.

Another set of side effects may endure for years, although they are not considered to be dangerous.

For example, after a year of using Mirena, around 20% of women report that they no longer get their period.

When a woman discontinues the use of an IUD, her period will almost always return.

Mirena is a hormonal birth control method, and as a result, there is a tiny possibility that you may gain weight while taking it.

Mood swings and despair are among the side effects of Mirena’s use.

Rare adverse effects, such as uterine migration or perforation, are more dangerous to a woman’s health than the more common ones. It is possible that Mirena will have to be removed as a result of these.

It is possible that breastfeeding will increase the chance of IUD perforation at the time of Mirena placement.

The following are some of the most common Mirena adverse effects:

  • Pain in the abdomen and pelvis
  • Acne
  • Back discomfort is a common occurrence.
  • Between cycles, there is bleeding and spotting.
  • Bloating
  • Tenderness or discomfort in the breast
  • Changes in the rate of hair growth
  • Depression is characterized by changes in mood.
  • Dizziness
  • Headache/migraine
  • During the first several weeks after the placement of the device, there may be more bleeding.
  • Itching or a rash on the skin Loss of desire in sexual activities
  • Missed menstrual periods (amenorrhea)
  • Nausea
  • Nervousness
  • Cysts in the ovaries
  • Vomiting
  • Weight growth is a problem.
  • Mirena Increase in body weight
  • Because copper IUDs do not employ hormones, they have a lower likelihood of causing weight gain.

Mirena, on the other hand, is treated with levonorgestrel, which is a progestin hormone.

As a result, a tiny proportion of Mirena users may experience weight gain.

According to OB/GYN Henry Dorn, research have shown that IUD users gain weight at a rate of less than 5 percent.

If they do, the majority of the time it is due to water weight.

Mirena with Breastfeeding – What You Need to Know

An IUD may cause a variety of issues - IUD Risks and Complications 
An IUD may cause a variety of issues – IUD Risks and Complications 

An very little quantity of levonorgestrel is released directly into the uterus via Mirena.

According to the Cleveland Clinic, this has no effect on the quality or quantity of breastmilk produced, or on the length of time you may breastfeed.

However, if your doctor installs Mirena while you are nursing, there is a higher chance of perforation and IUD migration than usual.

Bleeding

Following having an IUD, periods may be lighter or heavier for the first three to six months after receiving the device. 

After then, they may decide to cease entirely.

According to Bayer, two out of every ten women who take Mirena will have a period-free year after starting the medication.

Women should still see their doctor to ensure that they are not pregnant

Women should see their doctor if their menstrual bleeding continues to be heavier than usual or becomes heavy after having been mild.
Ovarian Cysts are benign growths on the ovaries.

Cysts on the ovaries occur in around 12 out of every 100 women who use Mirena.

 Ovarian cysts form when follicles on the ovary begin to expand in size.

According to Bayer, the majority of cysts disappear on their own within one or two months.

However, if they are causing discomfort, a doctor may decide to remove them surgically.

Tenderness in the Breasts

According to the Mirena label, more than 5 percent of women who used the device in clinical trials had breast soreness or tenderness.

This is a common side effect of hormonal contraceptives, and according to researchers at the David Geffen School of Medicine, there is no statistically significant difference between combined oral contraceptives and other hormonal contraceptives.

Women should seek medical attention if their discomfort is severe.

Exceptional Mirena IUD Side Effects

Some women have claimed major adverse effects, despite the fact that this is an uncommon occurrence.

Exec topic pregnancy and infection, for example, are both life-threatening side effects that must be addressed immediately.

The necessity for surgery may be necessary in specific circumstances for the female body.

Mirena claims allege that the device moved from its intended placement, resulting in organ perforation and ectopic pregnancy in certain instances.

Ensure that you speak with your doctor about the dangers of taking Mirena as well as whether or not Mirena is appropriate for you.

Expulsion of the device

The most often reported adverse effect is device ejection, which may occur when the device shifts inside the uterus or falls out completely.
It may occur at any point after implantation, although it is most common during the first few months after the procedure.

After screening for pregnancy, a doctor may replace it.

In the event that a woman has signs that suggest the device is no longer in place, she should call her doctor right once. These symptoms include bleeding, cramps, and higher menstrual flow.

WHAT IF I TOLD YOU THAT…

Between December 2000 and March 2018, the FDA received 30,932 complaints of device ejection.

Using expulsion rates from levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs and copper IUDs, writers published a paper in the American Family Physician in 2006 comparing the two types of contraception.

They discovered that the rate of expulsion for hormonal devices was lower — 5.8 percent compared to 6.7 percent — than that of other devices studied.

A greater chance of ejection exists for women who had given birth less than six weeks before inserting Mirena.

Perforation

When the IUD cuts through the wall of the uterus, this is referred to as a perforation.
According to a research published in the journal Contraception, around one in every 1,000 women who use an IUD will suffer from perforation.
Severe stomach discomfort, bleeding, and the removal of the IUD string are all signs that the IUD has perforated. Scarring or organ damage may result from perforation.
Any moment during or after the insertion procedure, perforation might take place.
It is possible that a perforation has occurred in a woman who is experiencing significant stomach discomfort and vaginal bleeding and cannot locate the IUD string.
According to a 2012 research published in Radio Graphics, perforation occurs more often in women who are breastfeeding or who had given birth within six months of using Mirena.

According to data given at the 2014 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists conference, perforation happened more often with levonorgestrel IUDs than with copper IUDs in a research including 61,000 women from six countries.

Seventy percent of the individuals used a levonorgestrel IUD, whereas just thirty percent used a copper IUD, according to the findings.

When utilizing the hormonal IUD, 61 women had perforation, compared to 20 women who used the copper IUD (Table 1).

It was not considered “clinically relevant” by the authors of the study. They discovered that the relative risk of perforation was one in every 1,000 insertions (or 1 in 1,000 perforations).
The term “displacement” refers to movement away from one’s home.

When Mirena travels to a new location in the body, this is referred to as displacement.

Mirena may perforate the uterine wall and exit the uterus, which can result in this situation.

The presence of perforation is sometimes not detected by physicians.
Migration may result in embedment, which happens when the IUD becomes lodged in other regions of the body after it has been removed.
The International Journal of Surgery published a case report on a migration in its 2016 edition, for instance.

During the procedure, the IUD became lodged between two layers of abdominal lining and had to be removed.
Graph depicting the movement of Mirena
Several cases of Mirena migration were documented in a case report published in the Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons in 2011. Both cases required surgery.

There were no signs of pregnancy in the first instance, but the IUD strings were gone in the second. Surgery revealed that the IUD had been implanted in her right hip region and was surrounded by scar tissue, which required removal.

In the second instance, a 19-year-old woman got her Mirena after having an abortion performed on her. She went to the hospital ten days later because she was in excruciating discomfort.

The IUD was discovered in her diaphragm by doctors during an emergency surgery performed by them.

The Infection and Disease of the Pelvic Inflammatory System

A dangerous illness known as pelvic inflammatory disease affects less than 1 percent of Mirena users (PID).

Bleeding, vaginal discharge, stomach discomfort, chills, fever and pain during sex are all possible side effects of this illness.

Immediate therapy is necessary. 

The greatest risk of PID occurs within the first 20 days after the installation of the Mirena catheter.

A contraceptive device does not really cause or raise the risk of infection in most cases.

If germs are already present in the vaginal environment or if bacteria contaminate the IUD when it is being implanted, this condition is more likely to develop.

PID is more likely to occur if you have unprotected sex while using Mirena.

When it comes to using an IUD, women who have several sex partners are at higher risk.

FACT

The use of condoms may lower the chance of developing pelvic inflammatory disease in women, according to some research.

Patients should contact their doctor as soon as they have significant discomfort or an inexplicable fever.

Expecting a child unexpectedly and having an ectopic pregnancy

According to Bayer’s Mirena Welcome Kit, about eight out of every 1,000 women who used Mirena got pregnant within a five-year period.

This has the potential to be fatal. Also, it has the potential to produce a reduction in reproductive capacity.

The findings of the studies on the risk of ectopic pregnancy are conflicting in nature.

Septic abortion — with septicemia, septic shock, and death—can occur in people who have an IUD in place when they get pregnant.

In a study published in the International Journal of Women’s Health in 2016, researchers discovered that women who used hormone-releasing IUDs were more likely than those who used copper IUDs to experience ectopic pregnancies — a potentially life-threatening emergency that occurs when the fetus develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube — during their pregnancy.

Copper IUDs, on the other hand, have been linked to an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy, according to a study financed by Bayer published in 2014.

Researchers discovered that using levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs rather than copper reduced the chance of unwanted pregnancy by 84 percent, and that using ectopic pregnancy prevention devices reduced the risk by 74 percent.


Ectopic pregnancy symptoms include the following:

  • Abdominal or pelvic discomfort that is severe.
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Bleeding from the cervix
  • Constipation may be caused by a variety of reasons.
  • Problems with the bladder or intestines
  • Cerebral Pseudotumor
  • A pseudotumor cerebri is a brain tumor that is not real. Also known as intracranial hypertension, it is a condition that affects the blood pressure within the skull. There are symptoms that resemble those of a brain tumor when this syndrome is present. With Mirena, it is possible at any moment.

A research published in the journal Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety in 2015 looked at data from the Food and Drug Administration. In the study, it was discovered that Mirena was associated with an increased reporting of pseudotumor cerebri.

Diagram of a brain tumor.

A “false brain tumor” is another term for intracranial hypertension.

A greater than anticipated number of reports of [intracranial hypertension] with Mirena were discovered by the research group.

“When comparing Mirena to the oral contraceptive EE-norgestimate, we discovered a comparable risk of ICH,” the scientists reported.

According to the authors, “In light of these recommendations and the potential growth in the use of [intrauterine levonorgestrel (IUL) devices], the risk of ICH with Mirena should be carefully communicated to young women who are considering using them.”

If the disease is not addressed, it has the potential to result in irreversible blindness in the affected eye(s).

Tags: Pregnancy

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