3 ways to treat bone cancer

3 ways to treat bone cancer

Bone cancer

The term bone cancer refers to cancer that starts in the bone and spreads to the bone; it does not refer to cancer that
started elsewhere and spread to the bone.
Each cancer named after its discoverer, and bone cancer is one of the types of cancer that not widely spread.
The most affected bones are the long bones, such as those that make up the arms and feet, and there are several
different types of bone cancer; some occur more frequently in children, while others occur more frequently in adults, we will show you how to treat bone cancer

Bone cancer symptoms

The presence of pain is the most common symptom of bone cancer.
But not all bone cancers cause pain, and bone cancer may cause persistent swelling and pain in the bones or in areas
close to them, and these symptoms may be the result of another pathological condition,
so; It is necessary to see a doctor to find out the cause of the symptoms and a final diagnosis and how to treat bone cancer.

types of bone cancer

Bone tissue is made up of various tissues, including osteoid tissue, cartilaginous tissue (which is strong but flexible), fibrous tissue, and bone marrow.
Bone cancer can occur in any type of bone tissue, including the marrow.
However, the following are the most common types of bone cancer:

  1. Osteosarcoma
    Most commonly found in the knee or upper arm.
    Its origins can be traced back to the cells of tough bone tissue.
  2. Chondrosarcoma
    Which typically occurs in the pelvis, upper leg, or shoulder, made up of cartilage tissue cells, but it can also contain
    cancerous bone cells, in which case it is classified as an osteosarcoma.
  3. The Ewing Sarcoma Tumor Family;
    It usually occurs in the spinal column, pelvis, arms, and legs.
    And this type usually arises in bone tissue; however, it can also occur in soft tissues such as muscle tissue, fatty tissue,
    blood vessels, and other types of supportive tissues.
    And doctors believe that the origin of this type some of the primary parts of nervous tissue found in bone tissue or soft
    tissues.

Bone cancer diagnosis to treat bone cancer

Clinical examination, imaging, and blood tests may indicate the possibility of bone cancer.
But to confirm the final diagnosis, doctors usually need to take a biopsy of bone tissue and examine its cells under a microscope.
As a result, in order to obtain a definitive diagnosis of the condition.
It is necessary to use and combine all available diagnostic tools and information.

Imaging examinations

Various imaging tests are used to diagnose bone cancer, including:

  • X-rays;

Where the affected area by bone cancer appears irregularly and unconnected.
And it can appear as a hole in the bone, and this method can detect most types of bone cancer.
And the specialist doctor may try to determine whether the tumour is benign or malignant based on its shape and
method.
It may appear on a radiograph, but this can only be confirmed by a biopsy.
And it may be useful in determining the presence of a tumour around the affected area.
Which can spread to surrounding tissues such as muscles and others.

3 ways to treat bone cancer
  • Surgical bone biopsy

which usually performed under general anaesthesia for the patient.
Or by foiling and pinching the nerve to numb a large area.
In which the skin incised to take part of the tumour and access it.
And in cases where the tumour removed Excisional biopsy refers to a biopsy that taken in its entirety rather than just a small portion of it.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging

is the best way to confirm the presence of bone cancer, and it also aids in the examination of the brain and spinal cord. However, it is sometimes considered annoying because it takes a relatively long time, about an hour, and because the patient is placed in a tube-like place for examination; this may upset some patients who have a fear of enclosed spaces, and the device makes sounds that may be disturbing to some.

Other methods of diagnosis to treat bone cancer

  • Radionuclide Bone Scans;

in which the patient is given a radioactive substance called Technetium Diphosphonate.
But the amount of radiation used is small and does not cause long-term damage.
And this radioactive substance targets the affected bone cells and appears as dense areas of grey or black colour,
known as hot spots.
And these points indicate where the disease has spread, and this method can observe the spread of cancer in earlier
stages than x-ray imaging. and it can also determine the amount of damage that cancer has caused to the bones.
But some other pathological conditions.
Such as arthritis or osteitis, and others, may appear in a similar way.

  • Positron Emission Tomography Scans,

in this method, glucose containing a radioactive atom used;
Because cancer cells consume glucose rapidly due to the rate of their metabolism, radiation observed
and traced using a specialised camera
And this method can used to determine whether the tumour is benign or not.

Examination by biopsy

A biopsy is defined as a tissue sample taken from the tumour for examination under a microscope.
And it is the only way to be certain in differentiating cancer from other diseases.
And by examining the biopsy.
It possible to know whether the origin of the cancer is bone or somewhere else.
And the most appropriate method for biopsy chosen according to what the surgeon deems appropriate; this depends
on the results of the x-rays, the patient’s age.
And other factors.
The following are some of the methods of examination that make use of biopsy to treat bone cancer:

  • needle biopsy to treat bone cancer ;

There are two types of needle biopsy, and in each one.
A local anaesthetic used to numb the area from which the biopsy will be taken.
The first is a fine needle biopsy.
In which a very thin needle connected to a syringe used to withdraw a small amount of
fluid and some cells from the tumour, and the second is core needle biopsies, in which a larger needle used to remove
a small cylinder of the required tissue.
This method preferred by many experts to diagnose primary bone cancer.

  • Surgical bone biopsy

Which is usually performed under general anaesthesia for the patient.
Or by foiling and pinching the nerve to numb a large area.
In which the skin incised to take part of the tumour and access it, and in cases where the tumour removed
Excisional biopsy refers to a biopsy that taken in its entirety rather than just a small portion of it.

3 ways to treat bone cancer

bone cancer treatment

The choice of treat bone cancer method influenced by several factors, the most important of which are the type, degree, and potential side effects of treatment, the patient’s health, and the option that the patient prefers.
In the case of advanced-stage cancer, for example, multiple treatment options combined.
The following are the most important treatment options:

  • Surgical excision.

which is the removal of the tumour and a portion of the surrounding tissue that not affected.
And in cases where the affected part is the arm or leg; the affected part is preserved as much as possible.
But in some cases, depending on the size and location of the tumour, the optimal treatment is to amputate the affected part.
Due to the rapid growth of their bones, children with bone cancer may require amputation more frequently than adults.

  • Chemotherapy;

This done by administering drugs that destroy cancer cells.
And inhibit their ability to grow and divide.
And the type of drugs used depends on the type of cancer.
With Doxorubicin, Ifosfamide, and Methotrexate the most well-known drugs used for bone marrow cancer.
Vincristine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide.
And other drugs used to treat Ewing cancer.

  • Radiation therapy

    The use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells is typically used in cases of bone cancer that cannot be surgically removed, but it can also be used before or after surgical removal to reduce the size of the tumour or to remove the remaining cancerous cells.

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