11 reasons cause a deficiency in growth hormone

11 reasons cause a deficiency in growth hormone

growth hormone deficiency

GHD, or growth hormone deficiency, occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough growth hormone.
The pituitary gland a small pea-sized gland at the base of the skull that secretes eight hormones.
Some of which regulate growth hormone.
Thyroid gland activity, body temperature. and growth hormone deficiency are more common in children than in adults,
and it should noted that growth hormone deficiency can treated.
And the child’s condition often improves significantly if the condition diagnosed and treated early.
If this health problem not treated, it lead to a variety of disorders, including delayed puberty, short stature compared
to the average height for the same age group.
And growth hormone is still important for the human body even after puberty.
Growth hormone keeps the body’s structure and metabolism in check.

Causes of growth hormone deficiency

Growth hormone deficiency can appear at birth, indicating that the cause is congenital, or it can appear later in life, indicating that the cause acquired.
And it is referred to as congenital growth hormone deficiency.
It happens as a result of the following factors:

  • A genetic mutation that may passed down to the child from both parents or from one of them;
    Three genetic defects that cause growth hormone deficiency have identified based on a specific genetic mutation:
    IA growth hormone deficiency, IB growth hormone deficiency.
    Or growth hormone IIB deficiency are all examples of growth hormone deficiencies.
  • Congenital brain defects, which may result in insufficient pituitary gland development.

As for the possible causes of acquired growth hormone deficiency;
The following is a statement of some of them:

  • Suffering from a brain injury or a severe head injury.
  • Systemic diseases, such as tuberculosis or sarcoidosis, affect multiple body systems.
  • The presence of a pituitary tumour or a family history of pituitary tumours.
  • Hormonal problems associated with the pituitary gland or associated with the hypothalamus.
  • Poor blood flow to the pituitary gland.
  • Undergoing brain surgery.
  • Having a specific type of infection.
  • Radiation therapies to the brain.
  • Other causes: Sometimes a growth hormone deficiency may be related to low levels of other hormones, such as: Vasopressin, which controls water production in the body, or gonadotropin, which controls the production of male sex hormones. and female, or thyrotropin, which controls the production of thyroid hormones, or adrenocorticotrophic hormone, which controls the adrenal gland and related hormones.
11 reasons cause a deficiency in growth hormone

Symptoms of deficiency

The symptoms that appear on a child born with a congenital defect that leads to a growth hormone deficiency differ from the symptoms that appear on adults who develop a growth hormone deficiency that is caused later in life.

Symptoms in children

In addition to the previously mentioned short stature and delayed puberty, a child with a growth hormone deficiency will exhibit a variety of other symptoms, including the following:

The large forehead is caused by an incomplete skull closure.
Permanent tooth growth is slowed.
Slow growth of facial bones, including a small or underdeveloped nose.
Inadequate nail growth.
A high-pitched tone of voice.
Slow growth of the facial bones, resulting in a small or incomplete nose.
A rise in abdominal fat. It’s unusual to have such a small penis.

Symptoms in adults

Symptoms that appear in adults with severe growth hormone deficiency include the following:

Body fat levels that are higher than normal, particularly fat around the waist.
Muscle mass has shrunk. Sexual function is impaired, and libido is reduced. Fatigue.
Isolation and alienation from others are becoming more prevalent.
Anxiety and depression are present.
Sensitivity to heat and cold that exceeds the normal limit.
Low bone density and an increased risk of bone fractures with age Changes in the composition of the blood’s cholesterol.
Reduced strength, stamina, and ability to exercise continuously without rest.

11 reasons cause a deficiency in growth hormone

Diagnosis of deficiency

The doctor asks about the patient’s medical history and performs a physical examination on him, including measurements of height, weight, and arm and leg lengths.
The doctor then orders blood tests to determine the levels of growth hormone and other hormones in the body. An X-ray of the hand also performed to rule out the possibility of other health issues affecting growth.
To check the growth and age of the bones, as well as the potential for growth, the following tests for growth hormone deficiency performed:

  • Screening of Insulin-like growth factor-1 and Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3.
  • Growth hormone stimulation test; the child is given drugs that stimulate his pituitary gland to secrete growth hormone, and then growth hormone levels are monitored. If growth hormone levels in the blood do not rise to a certain level, it may indicate that the pituitary gland is not producing enough growth hormone in the body.
  • Magnetic resonance image, abbreviated MRI of the head, to detect any problem in the brain or in the pituitary gland.

Growth hormone deficiency treatment

Growth hormone deficiency can treated with growth hormone replacement therapy, which consists of daily injections under the skin containing laboratory-produced growth hormone.
In addition to the manufactured growth hormone, the doctor may prescribe these hormones for the patient to take.
After prescribing treatment injections, the endocrinologist also monitors the stages of treatment with the manufactured growth hormone; regular visits to the doctor’s office every 3-6 months allow the doctor to adjust doses based on the patient’s health condition, in order to achieve the maximum level of effectiveness with the fewest possible side effects.

As previously stated, starting treatment at an early stage makes it more effective, and it should noted that some children can regain up to 10 centimetres of growth during the first year of treatment, while growth may increase at a slower rate in others, but it is still better than no treatment.
When the appropriate dose is taken, side effects of synthetic growth hormone are rare, and the duration of treatment is usually long.
After puberty, some children may able to discontinue treatment after consulting with a doctor; this because adult bodies require less growth hormone to function normally, though some children may still require treatment even in adulthood, emphasising that the doctor the only person authorised to determine the necessary duration of treatment, as well as the possibility of discontinuing treatment in the future or continuing to take it.

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